LONDON TRADERS, TAVERN, AND COFFEE-HOUSE TOKENS, CURRENT 1649-1672. :
Index of Tradesmens tokens.
The # prefix is the numbering of the Beaufoy collection, and B is the prefix of additional tokens listed in the Boynes collection.
St Pauls churchyard is listed on IndexOP
#976 AT THE 2 BREWERS Two draymen bearing a slung barrel.
Rev. ON SAFRON HILL In the field, G. A. P. 1/4
#977 JOHN JONES AT SAFFRON HILL In the field, I?
Rev. OVRE AGAINST THE CASTLE . 1672, in four lines.
Large brass size, for a penny circulation.
B2439. Obverse. ROBERT . BANKES . ON = 1657.
R. SAFFORN . HILL = R . E . B. 1/4
B2441. Obverse. GEORGE . MASON = HIS HALF PENY.
R. ON . SAFRON . HILL = 1668.
This token is of lead.
B2442. Obverse. William . Orchard = A harp.
R. SAFRON . HILL . l660 = W . E . O. 1/4
#978 WILLIAM HARVEY AT Y CATT In the field, a cat.
Rev. IN SALSBVRY COVRT W. A. H., in the field. LARGE 1/4
Among the ancient Egyptians., the cat was revered as an emblem of the moon. Stately temples were erected to their honour, in which special worship was observed, and sacrifices rendered. When a catdied, all the family in the house shaved their eyebrows ; posthumous honours were religiously performed, and their burial attended with great formality. Their remains even now, as swathed mummies, and remembrances in alabaster vases with cat -head covers, and wooden effigies, may be observed in modern museums. Diodorus Siculus relates that a Roman having by accident killed a cat, the mob gathered about the house in which he was, and notwithstanding the Egyptians were then negotiating a peace with the Romans, neither the fear of their vengeance, nor the entreaties of persons sent by the king to pacify them, could appease their wrath, or rescue the man from death by their hands.
Query, was Boniface, embued with this veneration for the animal, thus considered sacred to Diana, or in love with the subject of his sign, induced with Horace to exclaim" Micat inter omnes ?"
B2738. Obverse. Richard . Burmby— The Tallowchandlers’ Arms.
R. IN . SALSBURY . COURTE = R . M . B. 1/4
B2740. Obverse. the . Sunne . Dyall = A sunflower.
R. SALSBURY . COURT= 1D .
B2741. Obverse. AT . THE . COCK . IN . SALT = A COCk.
R. PETTER . YARD . 1653 = W . E . B.
#979 WILLIAM GARWAY . AT Ye SENTRY A still ; Distillers arms.
Rev. GATE IN WESTMINSTER . 1666 HIS HALFE PENY. W. A. G.
All churches and churchyards, during the papal domination till the reign of King Henry the Eighth, were more rfr less sanctuaries, and protected traitors, murderers, and other misdoers, if within forty days they acknowledged their crimes, and submitted themselves to banishment. The sanctuaries claiming more privilege than others were those of St. John's of Beverley, St. Martin 's-le-grand in London, Ripon in Yorkshire, St. Burian's in Cornwall, and Westminster. The Sanctuary gate stood on the abbey side of Great George street, near the site of the present Sessions house.
B2742. Obverse. at . the . Uincorne = A unicorn.
R. aganst . the . savey= R . M . D and a flower. 1/4
B2743. Obverse. RICHARD . LAWTON . AT . Y E . BEL-HIS HAL PENY. A bell.
R. and . 3 . cranes . by . y e . savoy . 67=Three cranes standing.
Richard Lawton at Ye Bell and Three Crowns by Ye Savoy. His Half penny, Dated 67 .A Bell, And Three Cranes standing.
B2750. Obverse. John . Lansdell=A hand pouring from a coffee-pot into a cup.
R. IN . SCALDING . ALLEY = HIS HALF PENY.
B2751. Obverse. Francis . Russell . in = The Cloth workers’ Arms.
R. SCAVLDING . ALLEY . 57 = F . E . R.
B2752. Obverse. the . coopers . ARMES = The Coopers’ Arms.
R. IN . SCHOLEHOVS . LANE = G . A . R. 1/4
B2753. Obverse. PERCIVALL . TOWLE . BAKER . IN = HIS HALF PENY.
R. SCHOOLE . LANE . RATCLIFFE = P . T . T. 1668 .
B2754. Obverse. nich : watts . against . y b = A hand holding a pair of scissors and curling-irons. N . A . w.
R. SCOOLE . HOVSE . IN . RATCLIF = HIS HALF PENY.
#980 RICH. WEST . AT RED A cross pattee, in the field.
Rev. IN SEACOL LANE . 1662 In the field, R . S . W. 1/4
A blind ale-house in Sea-coal lane was one among the many places of shift, hide and seek, of George Peele, the dramatist, and Shakespeare's contemporary. In the Merrie Conceited Jestes of this worthy is a ludicrous description of a rencontre here, between him and Anthony Nit the barber of Brentford, who had been deluded of his lute by the cajolery of the former.
B2755. Obverse. GEORGE . BARKER . AT = Three tuns. G . A . B.
R. ye . in . seacole . lane . 66 = A wheatsheaf.
B2756. Obverse. Samuell . Chappell . in . Seacole . Lane . 1671 (in four lines).
R. The Goldsmiths’ Arms, filling the field. 1/4
B2757. Obverse. John . MEREIFEILD = The Blacksmiths’ Arms.
R. IN . SEACOLE . LANE = I . M . M. 1/4
B2759. Obverse. RALPH . BONNICK . AT . Y E . BLACK = A d02;.
R. DOG . IN . SEETHING . LANE . 68 = HIS HALFE PENNY. R . I . B.
B2760. Obverse. EDWARD . RADCLIFFE . AT . THE = A dog. E . M . R.
R. PIDE . DOG . IN . SEATHING . LANE = HIS HALF PENY. 1667.
B2761. Obverse. Thomas . Rivers = The Grocers’ Arms.
R. IN . SEETHING . LANE = T . I . R. 1/4
B2762. Obverse. William . Vaston = A man making candles.
R. IN . SEETHING . LANE = W . V. 1/4
B2763. Obverse. Thomas . Fountayne = A fountain.
R. IN . GREATESENTRY = T . F.
B2764. Obverse. WILLIAM . GARWAY . AT . YE . SENTRY = A Still.
R. GATE . IN . WESTMINSTER . l666 = HIS HALFE PENNY. W . A . G.
Shadwell, as a parish, is portion of Stepney, from which it was taken by Act of
Parliament, passed March 17th, 1670. The parish church, named St. Paul's by
reason that the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, London, are the patrons, was not
consecrated till March 20th, 1671.
#981 MATHEW DODSLEY AT M. R. D., in the field.
Rev. SHADWELL DOCK . 1658 Bear, with collar and chain.
Signs formerly were expensive affairs, and sign painters doubtless frequently extortionate. A thrifty Boniface requiring a bear, was told by the painter, one without a chain was the cheapest. The stipulated price, though low, was agreed on ; but the painter using size-colours, the unchained bear was soon by the rain obliterated and washed off. The innkeeper, enraged at what he shrewdly supposed was the painter's duplicity, was told in reply, the fault was all his own ; as had he paid sufficiently to have the bear drawn with a collar and chain, he could not have gone away, " for," argued Apelles, " can you or any man imagine a bear would stay without a chain ?" Cambridge Jests, 1674.
#982 WILLIAM POWES A wheatsheaf, in the field.
Rev. LIVING IN SHADWELL In the field, w. E. p.
#983 THO. DARRELL . AT BELL A bell, in the field.
Rev. WHARFE IN SHADWELL In the field, T. M. D.
Bells have long been a favourite object as a sign, attributable doubtless to some of the delusions Catholicism inflicts on its devotees. The sound of a consecrated bell was said to have the power of averting the perils of lightning and storms ; generally, the prevalency of bells, as signs, has its origin in this belief.
#984 AT THE SWAN WITH 2 A swan with two necks.
Rev. NECKS IN SHADWELL In the field, N. E. B.
Swans were anciently considered as the "the king's game." King Edward the Fourth ordained that no one, whose income was less than five marks, should possess a swan ; and imprisonment to any one who dared to touch their eggs. The marks of the several owners, known as swan marks, were on their beaks ; that of the king's was called the double nick ; and the sign of the royal swan, or swan with two nicks, becoming unintelligible to the sign painter, was perverted into the " swan with two necks." So also swan-upping, the taking up of the cygnets to mark them, on the authorized day, the Monday following Midsummer-day, is now changed into the ridiculous phrase of swan -hopping.
" The Swan with Two Necks at Milk-street end," the now Swan with Two Necks in Lad lane, is noticed by Machin in his Diary, August 5th, 1556.
On another token, No. 1072, the same sign occurs.
#985 JOHN ANNIS IN SHADWELL A lion passant, in the field.
Rev. NEERE COALE- STAIRS. 1667 HIS HALFE PENNY.
#986 GREGORY COOKE . 1666 Head to the left, in the field.
Rev. IN MIDDLE SHADWELL HIS HALF PENY.
#987 NICH: THORN. CHANDLER In the field, a greyhound.
Rev. IN NEW SHADWELL N. s ? T., in the field.
#988 THE SONNE TAVERNE Sol in rays, in the field.
Rev. IN UPPER SHADWELL . 1657 In field, E. s. N.
The Sun, on many tokens, is shown as a human face, from which externally proceed spikes as radiating points, to indicate the rays resulting from that great luminary. A sign of this character is said to have bothered a recruit, who having emerged for the first time from his native village, was billetted at the Sun, and writing home, described the sign as " the mon's face set a' round of skivers."
#989 YE SPEAKER FRIGAT In the field, E. E. W.
Rev, IN UPPER SHADWELL A ship, in the field.
Sir Richard Stainer, the commander of the Speaker frigate, was knighted by Cromwell, at Whitehall, June llth, 165^, for his bravery in the fight under Admiral Blake against the Spaniards. The sign was therefore either complimettary, or set up by some Boniface who had served on board.
#990 HENREY SMITH . 1658 A leg, in the field.
Rev. IN UPER SHADWELL In the field, H. A. s.
The usual stocking-seller's sign.
#991 EDWARD HILLSYE Cooks Company arms.
Rev. IN UPER SHADWELL In the field, E. P. H.
#992 BENIAMIN MILLER. 1666 A windmill, in the field.
Rev. IN UPPER SHADWELL HIS HALF PENT.
Sharp's alley, wholly demolished in May, 1853, for the sanitary improvement of
#993 GEORG[E] ADAMS . SHARPS 1657, in the field.
Rev. ALEY. cow CROSS In the field, G. M. A.
#994 AT THE 3 LYONS IN Three lions passant gardant.
Rev. SHARPS ALLEY. 1657 In the field, G. M. F. 1/4
B2766. Obverse. John . Everett . in . sharps = Three horses galloping.
R. ALLY . IN . COW . CROSS . 1667 = HIS HALF PENY. I . B . E.
B2768. Obverse. THO . FARR . IN . SHARPES = A ROSE.
R. ALLY . NEAR . COW . CROS = T . M . F. 1670. 1/4
B2769. Obverse. FRANCIS . OLIVER . IN . SHARPES = HIS HALFE PENY.
R. ally, neare . cow . cross . 1667 = The Leathersellers’ Arms.
B2770. Obverse. JONATHAN . REDOCK = 1663.
R. IN . SHARPS . ALLY = I . E . R.
#995 AT THE SHIP IN SHARPS A ship, in the field.
Rev. ALLY IN LEADEN HALL In the field, F. G. R.
B2772. Obverse. Rich : Thomson . in = An Indian with bow and arrow.
R. SHERBORNE . LANE = R . T.
B2773. Obverse. I . D . in . Shepe . yard . his . halfepeny (in four lines).
R. with . out . Templebar (in two lines). A ship. |
J D in Shepe yard his half penny without Temple Bar and A Ship
" Hard by the bar is Shire lane, so called because it divideth the city from the
shire." Stow, edit. 1598. The parochial records of St. Dunstan's show several presentments in the reign of King James the First, against the old gateway
or entrance from Fleet street into Shire lane.
Anthony Wood, the historiographer of Oxford, in his Diary, May 1st, 1670, notices that he " dined with Mr. Ashmole, at his house in Sheer lane neare Temple barr ; and John Davis of Kid welly was there. After dinner, he conducted A W. to his lodgings in the Middle Temple, where he showed him all his rarities, viz., ancient coins, medalls, pictures, old manuscripts, etc., which took them up neare two hours' time." The rarities here described now constitute the worldwide known Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.
Shire lane, more recently a locality of most disreputable character, by way of obliterating the past, was in July, 1845, renamed Lower Serle's place.
#996 JOHN PARRETT AT THE SWORD A sword and buckler.
Rev. AND BUCKLER IN SHEERE LANE HIS HALFE PENNY. 1667.
The general character of buckler- play, as formerly practised in the streets of London, is an incident in the interlude named Jacke Jugeler, "both wytte and very playsent, 1563," 4to. So also in Coclce Lorell, the Pardoner recites on his roll the name of " Jelyan Joly at sygne of the bokeler."
Buckler play, which but one other token is known to illustrate, by a proclamation in 1609, more particularly concerning the city of London and counties adjoining, was, with bear-baitings and singing of ballads, thenceforth to be utterly prohibited, and the parties offending to be severely punished by any alderman or justice of the peace ; but in the misgoverned reign of Charles the Second, licenses for that, as a pastime, and other mischievous sports were, on payment of a fee, readily obtained of Sir Henry Herbert, then Master of the Revels. Misson, who was in England in William the Third's reign, in reference to these conflicts, observes, ' ' within these few years you would often see a sort of gladiators marching thro' the streets, in their shirts to the waist, their sleeves tucked up, sword in hand, and preceded by a drum to gather spectators. They gave so much a head to see the fight, with cutting swords and a kind of buckler for defence. The edge of the sword was a little blunted, and the care of the prize-fighters was not so much to avoid wounding one another, as to avoid doing it dangerously ; nevertheless, as they were obliged to fight till some blood flowed, without which nobody would give a farthing for the show, they were forced sometimes to play a little roughly." Hogarth's print of The Fair, an assemblage of contemporary histrionic characters of every-day life, now extinct, places them immediately before the reader. The house in Shire lane was probably noted for such exhibitions.
#997 Will. Richardson . His Halfe Penny, in four lines.
Rev. In Sheire Lane . 1667, in four lines, in the field.
B2776. Obverse. IN . TEMPLE . BARR = A harp.
R. IN . SHEARE . LANE = I . E . D. 1/4
B2777. Obverse. I . W . D . Baker . wthin . Temple . Barr (in four lines).
R. In . Shear . LANE . his . halfepeiiy . 1666 (in four lines). |
B2778. Obverse. at . the . French . Tavern = A French horn.
IN . SHERE . LANNE = L . H. 1/4
B2779. Obverse. Horne . Tavern = A French horn.
R. IN . SHERE . LANE = L . H. 1/4
B2780. Obverse. at . the . Red . Lion = A lion rampant.
R. IN . SHEERE . LANE = I . I . M. 1/4
B2782. Obverse. REYNOLD . IN . SHERE . LANE = AT THE. A harp.
R. IS . HALFE . PENNY . 1666 = AND THE. A fox On his seat.
B2784. Obverse. Tho . Skelton . in = Three arrows.
R. SHEAR . LAN . MEALMAN = T . M . S. 1/4
B2785. Obverse. Thomas . Smith . in = An anchor.
R. SHEARE . LANE . 1667 = HIS HALF PENY. T . E . S.
B2786. Obverse. Margaret . Tomson = A shield of Arms.
R. IN . SHEARE . LANE = M . T. 1/4
B2787. Obverse. Samuell . waters . in . sheare = A bird on a cornsheaf, and one on each side.
R. LANE . NEARE . TEMPLE . BARR = HIS HALF PENY. S . L . W.
Shoe lane and its vicinity appears in the olden time to have been notorious for
the habitation of block draughtsmen and vulgar sign-painters. So the anonymous
author of Whimzies : or a New Cast of Characters, 1631, duod., observes " A
ballad-monger is the ignominious nickname of a penurious poet, of whom he
partakes in nothing but in povertie. He has a singular gift of imagination, for
he can descant on a man's execution long before his confession. Nor comes his
invention far short of his imagination. For want of truer relations, for a neede,
he can finde you out a Sussex dragon, some sea or inland monster, drawne out by
some Shoe-lane man in a Gorgon-like feature, to enforce more horror in the
#998 THOMAS SEELE AT A tobacco-roll, in the field.
Rev. SHOOE LANE In the field, T. A. s.
#999 JAMES SMITH Device in the field obliterated.
Rev. IN SHOOE LANE In the field, five bells.
#1000 AT THE CROSE KEYES In the field, I D
Rev. IN SHOOE LANE Two keys crossed, in the field.
The crossed keys, a relic of the papal time in England,, are typical of St. Peter, well known as the accredited bearer of the keys of Paradise. The apostle is himself occasionally represented with two keys in his hand, and at other times with a double key, surmounted by a cross. St. Peter was the first of the followers of Christ to declare the glories of salvation, and his preaching had effect on the minds of the earliest converts, by his artless simplicity and humble character. The boat used on the Thames is called a Peter-boat, in compliment to the saint as the especial patron of fishermen and of fishmongers ; and the keys, the emblem of St. Peter, form part of the ensigns of the Fishmongers Company. In the early periods of art, the Pope was commonly represented in the character of St. Peter, bearing in his hand the keys of heaven. The power of the keys assumed by the Pope, and intended to infer the privilege of passing judgment on departed souls, is derived from the metaphorical expression of Christ, recorded in the Gospel, St. Matthew, chap. xvi.
#1001 MANSFIELDS COFFEE HOUSE Hand holding coffee-pot.
Rev. IN SHOE LANE . BY PROVIDENCE Coffee-cups and pipes.
The pennies were issued on the coffee houses reopening after the great fire.
#1002 JOHN PAYNE IN. 1669 HIS HALFE PENNY, ill field.
Rev. SHOOE LANE . MEALEMAN Floral device, I. D. P.
#1003 WILLIAM GILLAM AT THE Two figures, in the field.
Rev. JEAN SHORE IN SHORDICH HIS HALFE PENNY.
B2823. Obverse. DEBORAH . JOHNSON = AT JANE SHORE.
R. IN . SHORDICH . 1664 = D . I. 1/4
The figures represent King Edward the Fourth and his mistress, Jane Shore. The
sign is extant in the High street. The popular derivation of the name Shoreditch
was that it was so called after Jane Shore, who died in a ditch there.
#1004 THE ROSE AND CROWNE A crowned rose, in the field.
Rev. IN SHOREDITCH. 1652 In the field, S. P. 1/4
#1005 NEARE SHOREDITCH The sun in rays, in the field.
Rev. CHURCH. AT SUNN. 1657 In the field, C. R. 1/4
The adage of a man being the worse for being " in the sun," seems verified in the die-sinker's blunder, or misarrangement of the legend on the token, the purport of which is "the Sun neare Shoreditch church."
#1006 RICHARD HOULDER IN A linen-press, in field.
Rev. SHORDICH . PATTEN MAKER HIS HALFE PENY. 1669.
#1007 JOHN WOODESON LIVEING A plough, in the field.
Rev. IN SHORDITCH. 1669 HIS HALF PENY.
B2810. Obverse. at . the . 3 . Tunes . in . hol = Three tuns.
R. OWEL . COART . SHORDITCH = L . I . B. 1/4
B2811. Obverse. at . the . hors . shew = A horse-shoe.
R. IN . SHORDICH = T . I . B. 1/4
B2812. Obverse. Edmond . Bannister . in . hollo = A lion rampant.
R. WAY . LANE . SHORDICH . l668 = HIS HALFE PENY. E . E . B.
B2813. Obverse. O. John . Chapman = A windmill.
R. IN . SHORDICH = I . A . C. 1/4
B2814. Obverse. RICHARD . DREW = R . M . D.
R. IN . SHOREDICH . 1663 = R . M . D. 1/4
B2815. Obverse. at . the . Faulcon = A falcon.
R. IN . SHOREDITCHE = I . S . E. 1/4
B2816. Obverse. WILLIAM . FELLOWES . AT . THE = A Stag lodged.
R. AT . SHOREDITCH . CHURCH = HIS HALF PENY. W . E . F.
B2817. Obverse. John . Ferrer = St. George and the Dragon.
R. IN . SHORDICH = I . R . F. 1/4
B2818. Obverse. Thomas . Gateley = A bear.
R. IN . SHORDITCH . l664 = T . A . G. 1/4
B2820. Obverse. at . the . Cros . Daggers = Two daggers crossed.
R. IN . SHORDICH . 1656 = E . E . H. 1/4
B2822. Obverse. WILLIAM . HULL . AT . YE . ROYAL = A ship.
R. CHARLES . IN . SHORDITCH = HIS HALFE PENY.
B2824. Obverse. O. Henrye . Jorden . tallow = A man making candles.
R. CHANDLER . IN . SHORDICH = H . A . I. 1/4
B2825. Obverse. Robert . Leake . at . the = A chandler within a crescent moon.
R. IN . SHORDITCH . l668 = HIS HALF PENNY.
B2826. Obverse. Francis . Muster (Detrited).
R. shordich (Detrited).
B2828. Obverse. JOHN . PARSON = HIS HALF PENY.
R. in . shoredich . 1668 = A gridiron.
B2830. Obverse. at . the . Crown = A crown.
R. IN . SHORDICH . 1656 = N . L . S.
B2831. A variety is dated 1657.
B2832. Obverse. John . Trimnell = A stag at gaze.
R. IN . SHORDICH . 65 = I . I . T. 1/4
B2833. Obverse. Francis . Tunsteed . in = A chandler.
R. SHORDITCH . HIS . HALF . PENY = F . E . T. 1668.
B2834. Obverse. the . Hartiechoake = A Jerusalem artichoke.
R. IN . SHORDITCH . 1656 = H . M . W. 1/4
B2835. Obverse. Roger . Ware . in = The Royal Arms.
R. SHOVER . DITCH . 1667 = HIS HALF PENY.
" Silver street, the region of money, a good seat for an usurer." Ben Jonson.
#1008 JOHN LAWRANCE In the field, 1659.
Rev. IN SILVER STREET I. S. L., in the field.
B2837. Obverse. JOHN . LAURENCE . SILVER . STREET (in four lines).
R. his . halfe . peny . 1665 . I . S . L. (in four lines).
Richard Smith, in his Obituary, mentions, in May, 1630, ' ' Woodcock, a vintner, at the corner of Silver street, in Great Wood street, burned in his bed."
West Smithfield and Smithfield bars
are now here
" The high street turneth down Snore hill to Oldbourne conduit, and from thence
to Oldborne bridge, all replenished with fair building." Stow, edit. 1598.
Howell, in his Londinopolis, 1657, fol., in great part borrowed from Stow,
writes " Sore hill, now vulgarly called Snow hill."
Snow hill, from its declivity, was long an incommodious and even dangerous thoroughfare. The diurnals, in June, 1764, notice with much satisfaction the attempt then made to ensure personal safety. "The posts on the south side are taken down, and the foot-way being raised will make the street much more convenient for foot passengers."
Long and memorably distinctive on Snow hill has been the sign of the Saracen's Head, but unluckily no tavern token of the house is known. George Colman the younger, being in company where a young handsome wife wore on her breast a miniature of her husband with huge whiskers, was asked if he could guess who it was like? "Certainly," replied Grimnhoof ; "the Saracen's Head on Snow hill."
#1027 AT THE CO[C]K AT A cock, in the field.
Rev. SNOWHILL. 1649 In the field, E. E. B.
B2906. Obverse. O. AT . THE . COK . AT = A COCk.
R. SNOW . HILL . 1660 = R . T . N. 1/4
#1028 APOTHECARY In the field, M. N. C., in monogram.
Rev. SNOWHILL A cock on spire, in the field.
B2902. Obverse. apothecary = A . M . C in cipher.
R. snow . hill = A weathercock on a spire. 1/4
Apothecary, Snow Hill. Initials A M C in cipher. And A weathercock on a spire.
B2899. Obverse. RICH . AYNSWORTH . AT . THE = A Still.
R. STILL . VPON . SNOW . HILL . 1669 = HIS HALFE PENY.
B2903. Obverse. George . Fosson . at . the = A fountain.
R. FOVNTAIN . TAV . AT . SNOW . HILL = HIS HALFE PENY.
B2904. Obverse. in . Windmill . court . on = A windmill.
R. ON . SNOW . HILL . 1657 = I . I . G. 1/4
B2905. Obverse. THO . HITCHCOCK . AT = A Star.
R. STARR . ON . SNOW . HILL = T . E . H. 1/4
“ While he (Bunyan) was on one of these visits to town, in 168S, he died at the house of his friend Mr. Strudwick, a grocer, at the Sign of the Star on Snow Hill.”
—“ Literary Landmarks of London,” p. 25.
B2907. Obverse. Barack . Norman . of = A naked boy holding a cup.
R. SNOWHILL . CHEES m = B . A . N. 1/4
B2908. Obverse. O. THO . PULTENEY . AT . YE = A ball.
R. BALL . ON . SNOW . HILL . 57 = T . M . P. 1/4
B2909. Obverse. ALEXANDER . PRESTON = 3 Gloves SNO hill.
R. The same = The same. 1/4
“ A small silver Beaker, engraven round about it [ Richard Carter at the Cock on Snow Hill] was stolen on the 14th of July instant. Whoever shall give notice of it to the Three Gloves on Snow Hill , shall be well rewarded for his pains.”—The Intelligencer , No. 55, July 17, 1665, p. 594.
B2910. Obverse. ALLEN . SARTAN = Rolls of tobacco.
R. ON . SNOW . HILL = A . E . S. 1/4
B2912. Obverse. JOHN . WEST . TINMAN . AT . THE = A Crown.
R. CROWNE . ON . SNOW . HILL = HIS HALF PENY. 1668.
Soho or Sohoe fields, are noticed in the rate-books of St. Martin's in the
fields, so early as 1632, if not before ; and the burial register of St. Paul,
Covent garden, a parish parcelled out of St. Martin's, commencing in October,
1654, has frequent entries of interments of persons from Soho. A proclamation,
dated April 7th, 1671, prohibited the further erecting of small habitations and
cottages in the fields called Windmill fields, Dog fields, and the fields
adjoining to So-Hoe ; but the prohibition seems to have had no effect, as in
1675 the buildings had so extended, that a receiver was specially appointed to
collect the rates of that part of the then parish of St. Martin's in the fields,
and the rates are distinctly entered in what is designated " the Soho book." The
street called Old Soho, alias Wardour street, is later noticed. Windmill fields
were on the north side of Oxford road ; the site or position of the windmill
being indicated by Windmill street, leading from Charlotte street to Tottenham
The tradition that the square and neighbourhood derived the appellation of Soho from that being the password among the partizans of the Duke of Monmouth in 1685, though adopted by Pennant and others, is scarcely worth refutation; still the following, from the Loyal Protestant, a newspaper of that period, dated Thursday, August 17th, 1682, may interest some persons :
" On Wednesday [August 16th], about eight or nine o'clock, His Majesty, with some of his guards, came from Windsor to Whitehall, where he was met by His, Royal Highness [the Duke of York], and after walked through the park to St. James's, where they stayed some time ; and afterwards went up Piccadilly and through Rupert street, to view that famous So-hoe square, which having fully viewed, returned in his coach, accompanied by His Royal Highness, His Grace the Duke of Onnond, and the right honourable the Lord Hide, to the Duke of Ormond's in St. James's square, where His Majesty received a splendid treat. His Majesty and His Royal Highness then returned to St. James's, and about three His Majesty returned to Windsor."
#1031 THOMAS RODGERS Dog baiting bull, in the field.
Rev. AT SOHOW. 1667 In the field, His HALF PENY.
B2913. Obverse. John . Browne . 1664 = A pelican and young.
R. IN . SOHO . MEALMAN — I . E . B. 1/4
This and the two following tokens show clearly enough the error of supposing
that Soho took its name from the word given by Monmouth at the battle of Sedge-
moor, which did not take place until about twenty years after these pieces were
issued.—See the Gentleman s Magazine for March, 1850.
B2914. Obverse. O. Edmun . Mollton . at . ye = A chequered square.
R. CHE.KER . IN . SAYHOW = E . C . M. 1/4
Somers quay was the first westward of Billingsgate. Regius's volume, entitled
Places of the Scripture, was " printed, in 1548, for Gwalter Lynne, dwelling
upon Somers kaye, by Byllinges gate, and solde by Richard Jugge, at the north
doore, in Poules churche yarde, at the signe of the By-bell."
#1032 JOHN SIMMONS . 1666 A still in field, from Distillers' arms.
Rev. ON LITTLE SVMMER KAY HIS HALFE PENNY, I. H. S.
#1033 Tilt-boat, with oar-rowers and steersman, in the field.
Rev. JOHN MICHELL LIVING AT LITLE SOMERS KEY NEAR BILINGSGATE, in seven lines.
B2917. Obverse. JOHN . MICHELL . LIVING . AT . LITLE . SOMERS . KEY . near . billingsgate (in seven lines). ( Octagonal.)
R. a . penny = A tilt-boat, with passengers and boatmen 1
John Michell living at Little Somers Key near Billingsgate. A Penny. And A tilt-boat, with passengers and boatmen.
The Knights Templars, an order founded in the Holy Land, in or about 1119, to
guard the traditional site of the Temple of Solomon, and to protect pilgrims who
resorted thither, adopted, as their first settlement in England, the place in
Holborn now distinguished as Southampton buildings ; but the community became so
rich in a very short time, that, according to Heylin, they possessed no less
than sixteen thousand lordships, and extending the splendour of their
establishment, occupied the ground still known as the Temple in Fleet street.
The round church in Inner Temple lane, built by them in imitation of the church
of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, was dedicated by Heraclius, patriarch of the
church of the Resurrection in that city, on February 10th, 1185, but the church
was not consecrated till 1240. It is still one of the glories of the British
Southampton buildings, nearly opposite to Gray's Inn in Holborn, still retains the old appellation. Thomas Wriothesley, earl of Southampton, petitioned, but unsuccessfully, King Charles the First, in 1637, for leave to demolish the then Southampton house, and to erect buildings for tenantry on its site. During the interregnum, the earl appears to have experienced no difficulty; and Howell, in his Londinopolis, 1657, fol., mentions Southampton house as having lately been " quite taken down, and turned to several private tenements." There are traders' tokens from Southampton buildings, bearing date 1658, and showing the occupancy of some of the houses. The speculation would seem not to have been profitably successful till the occurrence of the great fire, when Baron Atkins, in a letter to his brother Sir Robert, from Lincoln's Inn, dated September 8th, 1666, writes, " Houses are now at an excessive rate, and my lord treasurer's new buildings are now in great request."
The earl, on the restoration of King Charles the Second, was created lord high treasurer, and, according to Dugdale's Diary, " died at his house near Holborn, May 16th, 1667." Dugdale refers to Southampton, afterwards Bedford house, on the north side of Bloomsbury square, demolished in 1800, when Bedford place was erected on the site and garden.
#1034 THO. KENCIE IN SOUTH In the field, HIS HALF PENY.
Rev. HAMPTON BUILDINGS A crown, in the field.
#1035 JOHN WILKINSON WHIT A lion rampant, in the field.
Rev. IN SOUTHAMTON BILDGS In the field, I. E. W. 1/4
B2922. Obverse. 1 . cleaver . agnst . ye . arch = The Grocers’ Arms.
R. IN . SOUTHHAMTON . EVIL = I . C. 1658. 1/4
B2923. Obverse. YE . PURPLE . LYON . IN = F . E . G.
R. SOUTHAMTON . build = A lion rampant. 1/4
B2924. Obverse. George . Justis . in = The Bakers’ Arms.
R. SOUTHAMTON . BUILDINGS = G . R . I. 1/4
B2926. Obverse. SUSAN . KIDDER . SOUTH = S . B . K.
R . HAMPTON . BUILDINGS = SEMSTER. 1658. 1/4
B2927. Obverse. SIMONE . OSGOOD . IN = S . M . O.
R. SOUTH . AMPTON . BUILDINGS = MEALE . MAN. 1/4
By the designation " Southwark" on the early tokens, the Borough, or now High
street, from the old London Bridge to Mint street, opposite to St. George's
church, seems to be implied.
#1036 AT THE WHIT BVLL HEAD In the field, a bull's head.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE. 1648 i. A. B., in the field.
#1037 AT THE BORES HEAD A boar's head, lemon in mouth.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARK . 1649 In the field, w. M. B.
Henry Wyndesore, one of the household of the memorable Sir John Fastolf of Caister in Norfolk, in a letter to John Paston, dated from "London, on Sunday next after St. Bartholomew's day," August, 1459, or before, the year not being mentioned, entreats him at his leisure to remind Sir John of his old promise, to prefer or assist him in taking the Boar's Head in Southwark ; intimating that he had purposed to have been elsewhere, but that ' ' of my master's own motion he said that I should set up in the Boar's Head." Sir John Fastolf died on St. Leonard's day, November 6th, 1459, at the advanced age of more than eighty years.
In Alexander Chalmers's History of Oxford, it is stated that " the Boar's head in Southwark, now divided into tenements, with Caldecot manor in Suffolk, were part of the benefactions of Sir John Fastolf to Magdalen college, Oxford."
Boar's Head alley is by St. Margaret's hill.
#1038 AT THE GOLDEN KEY In the field, a key between H. L.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARK . 1649 Grocers Company arms.
#1039 AT THE STARE TAVERNE Star of eight points, in field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE. 1649 In the field, R. M. C.
The star is the crest of the Innholders' arms.
#1040 AT THE CHECKER IN The chequer, in the field.
Rev. SOUTHWARKE. 1651 In the field, I. I. B.
In Shakerley Marmion's Fine Companion, 1633, 4to, is noticed, "a waterman's widow, at the sign of the red lattice in Southwark." Possibly this was the house.
A manuscript list of tokens in the possession of Sir Peter Thompson, 1747, notices one of a later date, " JOHN BYBEB, at the chequer in the field ; on the reverse,
IN SOUTHWARKE, 1664, I. I. B."
George Cure gave certain tenements in Chequer alley, now vested in the governors of the Free Grammar School, to buy bread for the poor.
#1041 NATHANIEL COLLYER Grocers Company arms, in field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARK . 1651 In field, same repeated.
#1042 AT THE DOGG AND DUCKE Spaniel with duck in mouth.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE . 1651 In the field, E. M. S.
The Dog and Duck appears to have been well known in 1642-3, when it was made one of the points of extent of the earth-works, raised in defence of the metropolis against the royalists. Here was placed a quadrangular fort, with four half bulwarks.
This was the sign originally of a pot-house in the proximity of some ponds frequented for the brutal sport of duck -hunting ; but as encroachments on the land progressed and the ponds were drained, the facilities declined, and towards the close of the last century, as St. George's spa, the Dock and Duck obtained the character of a resort for the vicious of both sexes. There are views of the exterior and the interior, though difficult to be procured. Hedger the proprietor, having outwitted the city authorities in a lease for a long period, erected a number of tenements in St. George's fields, and the grounds belonging to Bethlehem Hospital now include the site of the once ingloriously famous Dog and Duck.
A boundary stone, having the South wark device, 1716, and a spaniel bearing a duck in his mouth, is yet retained in the garden-wall of Bethlehem Hospital, facing Barkham terrace.
1043 ANTHONY BLAKE . TAPSTER . YE GEORGE IN SOUTHWARKE.
Rev. Three tobacco-pipes : above them four beer measures.
On no other tokens than on this, and No. 1059, does the word TAPSTER occur Chaucer, in the prologue to his Canterbury Tales, written before 1390, describing the friar, observes
" He knew well the tavernes in every town,
And every hosteler and gay tapster."
Absolon, the jolly clerk in the Miller's Tale, had also the same disposition :
" In all the toun n'as brewhous ne taverne,
That he ne visited with his solas,
There as that anygaillard tapstere was."
Tyrwhitt, his erudite commentator, erroneously defined tapster as ' ' a woman who had care of the tap ; the termination stre, or ster, being used to denote a female, like trix in Latin. A woman baker was therefore called a bakester ; and a woman brewer, a brewester." Tapster really indicated a male vendor of beer or ale. The tapster at Pye-corner is a personage noticed in Peele's Merrie Jests ;
and in the Cobler's Song, printed in The Cobler of Canterburie; or an
against Tarltoris Newes out of Purgatorie, 1608, 4 to, the sex of the characters, and their rogueries in short measure, are particularly mentioned :
" When tapsters and ale-wives, from Barwick to Dover,
Fill thirdingdeall pots till the drinke run over ;
When the quart is so full that no froth you can see,
Then the Cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold bee."
So in the contemporary ballad of "The Times abuses," occurs the quatrain
" The bar-boy es and the tapsters
Leave drawing of their beere,
And running forth in haste they cry,
'See, where Mull'd Sacke comes here!' "
And again, Taylor the water poet, in his budget of epigrams, entitled The ScvMer, says, " If you will know the price of sinne, any ordinary priest can tell you, as well as Tom Tapster can tell, a penny is the price of a pot of ale."
#1044 AT THE GREENE MAN A wild man, club on shoulder.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE. 1651 In the field, A. G.
The Green Man is here shown as the figure in the masques and in the mayoralty processions.
#1045 THE ROSE AND CROWNE A rose crowned, in the field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE. 1651 In the field, T. K. B.
#1046 JAMES PITMAN IN A still, from the Distillers' arms.
Rev. SOUTHWARKE . 1655 In the field, I. I. p.
#1047 JOHN FOX AT THE CR[o]WN Arched crown, in field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE. 1657 A fox running.
#1048 THOMAS D ALLENDER A crown, in the field.
Rev IN SOUTHWARKE. 1659 In the field, T. D.
The Crown is still a "remanet," on the east side near St. George's church.
#1049 WILLIAM SHELLEY CHEESEMONGER, in the field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE In the field, w. M. s. 1662.
#1050 JOHN NELSON AT Ye Roll of tobacco, in the field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARK . 1664 In the field, I. N.
#1051 SUSANNAH BOND, in two lines across the field.
Rev IN SOUTHWARK In the field, 1664.
#1052 George Corfield at ye Lyon fy Lambe in SOUTHwark. G.K.C.
Rev. HIS HALF PENNY A lion and lamb, 1666.
#1053 RICHARD ROBERTS AT Ye BULL HEAD TAVERNE IN SOUTHWARK.
Rev. HIS HALF PENY A bull's head ; R. R. 1667.
Edward Alleyn, founder of Dulwich college, mentions the Bull's Head as one of the places he resorted to with friends, or on business with other persons.
The newspapers, in June 1756, announced " To be lett, being lately repair'd, in the Borough, Southwark, near the hospital, a large house, late the Bull Head tavern, either as a tavern or otherwise, having large vaults and a great deal of warehouse room."
#1054 ROB. THORNTON. HABERDASHER HIS HALFE PENNY. R. E. T.
Rev. NEXT THE THREE BRVSHES IN SOUTHWARKE. 1667.
The Three Brushes was a tavern of some notoriety. In one of the many disgraceful prosecutions under the papistical reign of King James the Second, Bellamy, mine host of the Three Brushes, figured most contemptibly as a witness for the Crown, on the trial of the Rev. Samuel Johnson, at Westminster Hall, on Monday, June 21st, 1686.
#1055 JOHN FOSTER IN SOUTHWARKE . 1667, in five lines.
Rev. Three swans, two and one ; HIS HALF PENY.
#1056 RICHARD POORE Ape on horseback, in field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE . 1667 HIS HALFE PENNY. R. E. P.
The ape on horseback appears to have long been an attractive pastime.
Pedro de Gante, in his narrative of the visit made to England in February, 1543-4, by his master, Don Manriquez de Lara, third duke of Najera, while describing the baiting of the king's bears at Paris garden on the bankside, Southwark, says, " into the same place they brought a pony, with an ape fastened on its back ; and to see the animal kicking amongst the dogs, with the screams of the ape, beholding the curs hanging from the ears and neck of the pony, is very laughable."
Thomas Cartwright, in his Admonition to Parliament against the Use of the Common Prayer, 1572, says, " if there be a bear or a bull to be baited in the afternoon, or a jack-a-napes to ride on horseback, the minister hurries the service over in a shameful manner, in order to be present at the "show."
Holinshed relates that in 1586, on the reception of the Danish ambassador, at Greenwich, " for the diversion of the populace there was a horse with an ape upon his back, which highly pleased them, so that they expressed their inward conceived joy and delight with shrill shouts and variety of gestures." Edit. 1587, vol. iii. col. 1562. The amusement at Paris garden was continued long after.
Evelyn, in his Diary, June 16th, 1670, mentions his going with some friends to the Bear garden, where he had not been for twenty years before, " it being a famous day for all these butcherly sports, or rather barbarous cruelties ; two poor dogs were killed, and all ended with the ape on horseback."
#1057 FRANCIS WHITE IN Two angels supporting a crown.
Rev. SOUTHWARKE. 1667 In field, HIS HALFE PENNY.
#1058 ADAM SMITH. 1668 Hand holding a hat, in the field.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARKE In the field, HIS HALF PENY.
The device on the obverse is the crest of the Hatband-makers' arms. Smith was doubtless a maker of felt or beaver hats.
#1059 RICHARD BLAKE . TAPSTER Head of Duke of Suffolk.
Rev. IN SOUTHWARK . 1669 HIS HALF PENY. R. F. B.
Richard Blake Tapster in Southwark. 1669. His Half Penny. Initials R F B. And a Head of Duke of Suffolk.
#1075 AT YE BALL AND RAVEN A raven : ball pendant above.
Rev. IN SPITTELL FEILDES In the field, W . M . C.
#1076 RICHARD MIDLATON Three tuns ; Vintners' arms, in field.
Rev. IN SPITTLE FEILDS. 3667 HIS HALFE PENNY. R. I. M.
#1077 NATHANIEL BARRS AT YE= Maypole, with accessories.
Rev. IN SPITTLE FIELDS. 1669 HIS HALF PENY.
Within a hoop on the may-pole are three tuns. The may-pole surmounted by an ivy-bush.
B2932. Obverse. Rich . nicholson . in . lasson = A tobacco-roll.
R. STREET . IN . SPITTLE . FEILDS = HIS HALF PENY. J
B2933. Obverse. John . Ormes . at . the . red = A lion passant gardant.
R. LYON . IN . SPITIL . FILD = I . E . O. 1/4
B2934. Obverse. John . Sammon . in . spitle = A salmon and bowl.
R. FEILDES . HIS . HALFE . PENY = I . P . S.
B2935. Obverse. Rob : Walley . brewer . at . the = A fountain and R . S . W.
R. FOVNTAINE . IN . SPITLE . FEILDS = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B2936. Obverse. RALPH . WILKES . IN = HIS HALFE PENY.
R. spittle . feilds . at . the = Bust of a Turk holding a coffee-cup.
B2937. Obverse. RALPH . WILKES . COFFEE . MAN = R . R . W.
R. in . spittlefields . at . the = Bust of a Turk holding a coffee-cup.
B2938. Obverse. at . the . kings . head = Bust of Charles I.
R. TAVERN . AT . SPITLEGATE = T . S . A. 1/4
B2939. Obverse. roger . kenyon . in . stable = The Royal Arms.
R. YARD . AT . S T . IAMESES . l666 = HIS HALFE PENNY. R . A . K.
B2940. Obverse. at . the . white . horse = A horse prancing.
R. IN . STABLE . YARD . WESTMIN = I . I . N . 1/4
Of old time so called, as may be supposed, of painter-stainers dwelling there.
#1078 JONATHAN MAREFIELD Royal arms, in the field.
Rev. IN STENINGE LANE In the field, I. M. M.
B2941. Obverse. Jonathan . Marefeild = The Royal Oak.
R. IN . STENINGE . LANE = I . M . M. 1/4
B2942. Obverse. the . hand . and . sheers = A hand holding a pair of shears.
R. IN . STAYNING . LANE = I . T . T. 1/4
#1079 ROBERT COLLINS Lion rampant, in field.
Rev. IN STANOP STREET In the field, R. C. 1/4
B2944. Obverse. AT . ST . HUGHES . BONES = H . E . H.
R . IN . STANVPS . STREET . 57 = 1657. 1/4
This was a shoemaker’s sign.
B2945. Obverse. in . stanvp . streete = Two keys crossed.
R. neare . new . market = A dog and duck. 1/4
B2946. Obverse. John . Ruffin . in = A man making candles.
R. STANOP . STREETE = I . R. 1/4
B2947. Obverse. Tho . Scardefeild = A figure standing.
R . IN . STANVP . STRET = T . E . S. 1/4
B2948. Obverse. Phillip . wilkinson = The Bakers’ Arms.
R. BAKER . IN . STAR . ALLY = P . I . W. 1/4
B2949. Obverse. RICHARD . DERNELLY = 1661.
R. IN . STILL . YARD . HALL = R . S . D. 1/4
B2950. Obverse. No legend. Arms : In a shield a chevron between three talbots
passant; crest, a dragon rampant.
R. EDWARD . BARRETT . AT . STOCKS . MARKET (in four lines across the field. Penny size ; thick brass).
#1080 WILLIAM FLEMING AT Y 3 Corn-porters lifting sack.
Rev. IN STONEY LANE. 1668 HIS HALFE PENY.
B2951. Obverse. Arthar . Brooke . at . ye = A lion rampant.
R. RED . LYON . IN . STOOL . LANE = A . A . B. 1/4
#1127 ROBERT DANCE IN STRUTON Eagle and child, in field.
Rev. GROUND . WESTMINSTER . 67 In the field, HIS HALFE PENNY. R. S. D.
#1128 ISAAC MARDOCK . OYLEMAN An oil-jar ; and I. I. M.
Rev. IN SUFFOLK STREET. 1666 HIS HALFE PENNY.
The Lucca or Florence oil-jar, as shown on the token, is one of those imported into England, formerly, and now frequently, set up by oilmen for their sign, painted red for display and protection against the weather. Their similarity to the form of a woman without a head has evidently suggested the whimsical sign of " the good woman," observable everywhere, where oilmen or colour-men adopt a sign.
Hogarth, in the " Noon" print of his Four Parts of the Day, 1738, has shown two signs in Hog lane, now Castle street, Seven Dials, apparently then well known in the neighbourhood. One is the Baptist's head in a charger, inscribed below " GOOD EATING." The other the " GOOD WOMAN/' a subject also noticed in the Universal Spectator, January 8th, 1743, in a paper on " the Humours of Sign-painting :" "I have not time to enumerate other things of this nature ; I shall only add, that there is a satirical colour-man near St. Giles's church, who has on his sign made a satire on the whole fair sex, by drawing on it a well-dressed genteel lady, but without a head, and under her is written, THE GOOD WOMAN." Hogarth and the colour-man appear to have both been wags in their way; and the Baptist's head is possibly no more than the artist's mode of supplying the head, the deficiency shown by the vendor of colours.
Venner the wine-cooper, a mad enthusiast, held forth doctrines so subversive of
all government at the conventicle in Swan alley, that an insurrection followed,
and as the leader, he was, on January 19th, 1661, at Swan alley end in Coleman
street, hanged, drawn, and quartered.
#1129 JOHN SHELDON IN SWAN ALLEY Three candlesticks.
Rev. IN COLEMAN STREET. 1668 HIS HALFE PENNY.
#1130 JAMES BEECH IN SWAN ALLY AT Y FOOT OF GAR.
Rev. LICK HILL IN THAMES STREET In the field, HIS HALFE PENNY. 1666.
Beech, a taverner, burned out from Swan alley in the great fire, re-established himself at the Grapes, in Bow street, Westminster. See No. 224.
The mansion of Henry Swieten, a Dutch merchant, formerly occupied the site. He
was one of the many eminent traders who were proceeded against in the Court of
Star Chamber, at the instigation of Thomas Violet, on charges of transporting
gold and silver bullion in contravention of the statute. Swieten, or Sweeting,
as he is named in the transaction, was fined on February 17th, 1637, five
Hollar's map or ground-plot, showing the ravages of the fire in 1666, depicts the site, part of which, by an arrangement with Swieten, was taken to enlarge the new Royal Exchange ; but, as the city rose from her ashes, and tenements were erected where Swieten's mansion stood, they acquired the appellation of Swieten's rents, since Sweeting's alley. Mr. Charles Sweeting, an eminent grocer, and deputy of Bishopsgate without, owner of this property, died August 6th, 1731. On the recent enlargement of the ground for the present Exchange, the whole were demolished, and the paved area passes over the ground.
#1131 THE SULTANESS . A COFFEE HOUSE A veiled head.
Rev. IN SWEETINGS RENTS. CORNHILL Heraldic device. 1/2
The Sultaness A Coffee House in Sweetings Rents Cornhill, with a Veiled head and a Heraldic device
B328 Obverse. Tho . Chub . ye . cooke = A lion rampant.
R. IN . SWEETINGS . RENTS = T . M . C. 1/4
As ever I am appreciative of the archive.org site and google books for
showing old and non-copyright scripts which can be used for research (copied).