LONDON TRADERS, TAVERN, AND COFFEE-HOUSE TOKENS, CURRENT 1649-1672. :
Index of Tradesmens tokens.
B1629. Obverse. O. John . Marsh . 1669 = A table, on which are three coffee-cups ; above, a hand holding a coffee-pot.
R. IN . LAD . LANE = HIS HALF PENY.
B1630. Obverse. at . the . swan . with . 2 = A swan with two necks.
R. NECKES . IN . LAD . LANE = S . W. L 1/4
“Stolne on Thursday night last November 14, betwixt five and six at night out of the Swan Inne with two necks in Lad-lane , a large Black Trunk, with a round cover, the Trunk and Goods weighed betwixt seven and eightscore pound weight . . . . ; the Trunk is lined with white cloth, and green tape, marked M. N.
If any one can give notice of the aforesaid Goods, to Mr. Osbrrne at the Swan with Two necks-Inne in Lad-lanes they shall have ten pounds for their pains.”—
The Kingdom's Intelligencer, No. 47, November 11-18, 1661, p. 729; and Mercurius Public us , November 14-21, 1661, p. 724.
#708 AT THE GREEN DRAGON A winged dragon, in the field.
Rev. ON LAMBETH HILL . 1651 In the field, I. E. H. 1/4
#709 SAMVELL ANDREWES AT A cock, in the field.
Rev. FOOT OF LAMBETH HILL In the field, S. E. A. 1/4
B1632. O. y e . kings . head . tavern = Henry VII., full-faced bust.
R. ON . LAMBETH . HILL = W . E . C. 1/4
B1634. O. John . Stanes . on = A sugar-loaf.
R. LAMBETH . HILL . 1664 = I . S. 1/4
B1635. O. AT . THE . CASTELL . ON = A Castle.
R. LAMBETH . HILL.= 1 . M . T.
B1636. O. Michael . (w). er . at . y e = Henry VIII.’s head.
R. IN . LAMBETH . H(lLL . HIS . HALF .) PENY = M . E . W. 1/2
#710 THOMAS EDMONDS Corn-porters lifting a sack, in field.
Rev. LAMBETH . 1668 HIS HALFE PENNY.
#711 HERCVLES cox. STARCH Wheatsheaf and birds, in field.
Rev. MAKER IN LAMBETH.  69 HIS HALF PENY. H. E. C.
#712 JOHN MASON AT WHITE A hart lodged, in the field.
Rev. IN ST. LAVRENC LANE In the field, I. M. M. 1.4
The White Hart and the Crossed Keys taverns, whence tokens were issued, have long since passed away ; the Blossoms inn only remains ; in the olden day it was named Bosom's inn ; and in 1522, when Charles the Fifth visited King Henry the Eighth, that hostelry was occupied by the emperor's servants. The great fire of 1666 destroyed all vestiges of the original edifice. It was rebuilt, and an engraving represents the sign as a figure of St. Lawrence, bearing the palm of martyrdom in his right hand, and supporting a gridiron.
B1637. Obverse. Carlille . in . 1671 = A Turk’s head.
R. Laurence . Lane = A monogram.
B1639. Obverse. Leonard . Peade = A stag couchant.
R. IN . S T . LAVRANCE . LANE = L . P. 1/4
B1640. Obverse. at . the . Crose . Keyes = Two keys crossed.
R. IN . S T . LAWRENCE . LANE = I . S.
Leadenhall street is here
B1704. Obverse. AT . Y E . WINDMILL . BREWER = W . G . G.
R. in . leather . lane . 57 = A windmill.
The G is apparently altered from F.
B1705. Obverse. John . Dowse = The Drapers’ Arms.
R. IN . LILLY . POTT . LANE = I . M . D.
Pepys, in his Diary, October 9th, 1661, notices his going " by coach to
Captain Marshe's, at Limehouse, to a house close by the lime-house, that gives
name to the place." He was in error. Stow, in edit. 1598, writes, " Limehurst,
or Lime host, corruptly called Limehouse, sometime distant a mile from Ratcliffe."
#730 JOHN RAILTON . 1658 The Bakers' arms, in the field.
Rev. BAKER AT LYMHOVSE 111 the field, I. E. R.
#731 ISAAC HICKMAN CHEES In the field, I. E. H.
Rev. MONGER IN LIMEHOVSE A woman churning.
#732 FRANCS ZACAGY A wheatsheaf, in the field.
Rev. BREWER IN LIME HOYS In the field, F. E. Z.
#733 MARGRET LVCAS Brewers Company arms, in the field.
Rev. IN LIME HOVS . 1663 In the field, M. L.
Women in the olden time appear to have been the chief brewers of ale and beer. Among the inquisitions of the Domesday Survey, it is stated, ' ( braziabat cujuscunque uxor, x.d.," that is, from every man whose wife brewed, the superior lord received ten pence ; and that women were chiefly employed in that trade is proved by the statute, at the time of passing the Assisa Panis et Cervisige, in 1266, 51st of Henry III. Harrison, in the Description of Britain, prefixed to Holinshed's Chronicle, vol. i. p. 96, alludes to the deceitful practices of the ale-wives in brewing, so late as the time of Queen Elizabeth ; and in Wales there is still a jocose saying ' ' no one hath reason to expect good ale unless he lies with his brewer." The beer-brewers of London, as a fraternity, are however frequently noticed in the early rolls of parliament, although, as a company, they were not incorporated till the time of King Henry the Sixth, in 1438.
#734 DOROTHY SMART In the field, HER HALF PENY.
Rev. IN LIMEHOVSE . 1667 D. S., with floral device.
#735 ANN HARLOW AT In the field, HER HALF PENY.
Rev. LIME HOVSE CORNER A. H., in the field.
#736 EDMOND DOBSON . 1667 In the field, HIS HALF PENY.
Rev. AT LIME HOVSE CORNER E. D., in the field.
B1706. Obverse. John . Bird . 1668 = A bird with a branch in its mouth (part of
the Tallowchandlers’ Arms), lime street.
R. AT. PEWTERERS . HALL = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B1707. Obverse. RICHARD . WINSPER . AT = R . M . W.
R. LINCOLNS . INNE . GATE = R . M . W. 1/4
Lions Inn - see Lyons Inn
#738 AT THE GOVLDEN GLOBE In the field, a globe.
Rev. IN LETLE BRETEN.1650 W. E. I., in the field.
#739 DANIELL LANE AT THE In the field, a goat.
Rev. IN LITTLE BRITTAINE HIS HALF PENY.
The asserted perversion of the Puritan adage " GOD ENCOMPABSETH us," into the sign of " the Goat and Compasses/' would seem to be the jocosery of some waggish expounder, as the writer has failed in discovering any old sign of that import. " The Goat and Compasses" is a sign in Upper Fitzroy street.
#740 AT THE RED CROSE In the field, R. E. P.
Rev. IN LITEL BRITTIN A Maltese cross, in the field. 1/4
B1708. Obverse. S . M . A . IN . LITTLE . BRITTAIN . PEWTERER . 1667 (in five
R. The Pewterers’ Arms. (No legend .) large 1/4
B1709. Obverse. ZACHARY . ALLEN = A Still.
R. IN . LITTLE . BRITTAIN = Z . A . A.
B1710. Obverse. JOHN . BERRIDGE . AT . YE . GOULDE = A Still.
R. STILL . IN . LITTLE . BRITTAINE . 67 = I . M . B.
B1711. Obverse. John . Collines . in = A breastplate.
R. LITTLE . BRITTEN = I . C.
B1712. Obverse. Thomas . Gasley . grocer = A bunch of grapes.
R. IN . LITTLE . BRITTIN . l666 = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B1713. Obverse. AT . THE . HARTE . & . BAL = A heart.
R. in . litle . Britain = A ball between H . K . H. 1/4
B1714. Obverse. Rapha . Harford = A book with clasps. 58.
R. in . little . brittain = A heart. 1/4
It appears from Ashbee’s List that Harford was a printer. His device shows
him to have been a bookseller. For others, vide No. 518, and Appendix.
B1715. Obverse. HENRY . HAYNES . HIS . HALF . PENY . 1666 (in five lines).
R. IN . LITTLE . BRITTANE = H . H.
B1716. Obverse. Ralph . Holland . in = A mailed arm, holding an anchor surmounted by a crown.
R. LITLE . BRITTAINE = R . D . H. 1/4
B1720. Obverse. John . Papworth . in — A horse saddled and bridled.
R . LITTLE . BRITTAIN . HIS . HALFE . PENNY .1667 (in five lines).
B1721. Obverse. GABRIELL . PULTENEY = A Crown.
R. IN . LITLE . BRITTENE . 57 = G . M . P. 1/4
B1722. Obverse. Francis . Taylor = Two angels supporting a crown.
R. LITTLE . BRITTEN = F . A . T. 1/4
B1723. Obverse. Samvell . Torshell . grocer = A sugar-loaf between S . D . T.
R. IN . LITTLE . BRITTAINE . 67 = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B1724. Obverse. Samvell . Torshell . grocer = A sugar-loaf between S . D . T.
R. IN . LITTLE . BRITTAINE = 1667. 1/4
B1725. Obverse. Tho . Whittingham = T . B linked together.
R. IN . LITTLE . BRITTIN = W. 1/4
An unusual arrangement of initials.
B1726. Obverse. ROBERT . WILMER . IN = R . M . W.
r. LITLE . BRITTAINE = 63. LETHER CUTTER ; and the Upper part of a shoe.
B1727. Obverse. Daniell . Wray . in = Detrited.
R. LITTLE . BRITTAINE = D . I . W. 1/4
“It is uncertain whether this belongs to London. Lolesworth was the old name of Spitalfields.”— C. R. Smith.
B1751. Obverse. Thomas . Spicar . in = The Mercers’ Arms.
R. LOSWOOTH . LANE . 1657= T . H . S. 1/4
#741 THE CARDENALLS CAPP Cardinal's hat, in the field.
Rev. TAVERN. IN LOMBARD STRETE In field, I. M. S.
The Cardinal's cap, or hat, was first instituted in 1265, at the council of Lyons, by Pope Innocent the Fourth. The colour, blood red, indicated that these men of peace should be ready to shed their blood in the service of God, and for the defence of his church.
Simon Eyre, draper, mayor of London in 1445-6, gave the tavern called the Cardinal's Hat, in Lombard street, with a tenement annexed on the east part of the tavern, and a mansion behind the east tenement, with an alley from Lombard street to Cornhill, and the appurtenances, all which were by him new built, toward a brotherhood of our Lady, in St. Mary Woolnoth's church, Lombard street, where he was buried in 1459. " Le Cardinales Hat," a tenement belonging to the Brethren of the Cross, and the king's road called " Grascherch strete," are noticed as boundaries in a survey of lands and quit-rents belonging to London Bridge, in the fifteenth century. Harl. MS. 6016.
In the steward's accounts of the expenditure of Sir John Howard, subsequently duke of Norfolk, slain at Bosworth field, are the following notices of the Cardinal's Hat tavern, and the charges of that day :
" July 30th, 1463. Item, my mastyre delyveryd to Sawnsam att the Cardenallys Hatt, for my said lord [John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk,] iijZ. vjs. viijrf."
" Item, the same day my mastyr payd att the Cardenallis Hatte, for horsse- mete and mannys mete, xviijs. iiijd."
" August 19th. Item, gevyn to a man att the Cardynallis Hatt, ijd. Item, spent the same day at the taverne, xvj d."
" August 21st. Item, payd at the Cardenalis Hatt, for horsse mette, xijs. vj d.
Item, in shoyinge, iijd. ob. Item, payd the same day for mannys mete, fro Twysday att evyn to Sonday none, xs. viijd."
" March 5th, 1463-4. Item, payd to the wyve off the Cardenallys Hat, for my masterya botys, iij. iiijd."
" March 12th. Item, to the goodman of the Cardenallys Hat, for horsemet/ vijs. vjd."
" Item, for my masterys mennys costys, when thei came ferst to London, iijs. iiijd."
" Item, for my masterys costys in bred, ale, and fere, xiijeZ."
" Item, for Reynoldys horse for a nyghte, iijc."
" Item, for ij nyghtes in beddys, viijd."
" March 13th. Item, payd for Jamys Hoberd costys and Thorpis, at the Cardenalys Hat, ijd."
" March 29th, 1464. Item, payd for beddys to the goodman off the Cardenallys Hat, xx d."
" January 5th, 1464-5. Item, payd for standynge of Gylders horsse at the Cardenalles Hat, viijc?."
“ Between Nos. 77 and 78 [Lombard Street] is a passage leading into Cornhill.
Although the name of it is unknown, there is no doubt but that it is the
Cardinal Cap Alley, which existed here before the Great Fire and long after
quite into this century. Prior to the alterations it was no doubt an open alley,
and the proprietors finding they could not abolish the right-of-way were
compelled to make the present passage.
“ Before the Great Fire there was a famous tavern near this site called the Cardinals Cap, and the proprietor issued a farthing token. Stow records that ‘Simon Eyre, a draper, Lord Mayor of London 1445-6, gave this tavern, alley, and another house adjoining to the brotherhood of our Lady in St. Mary Woolnots.' Pepys went here in 1660, after he had been to Backwells to change all his Dutch money into English, and the City Remembrancer paid for all.
“ In 1683, Sir Robert Viner desired his creditors to meet him at the Cock, which had formerly been called the Cardinals Cap Tavern. In 1680, we find John Snell dating from there.”— Ibid., p. 345.
“Yea my merry mates and I too
Oft to th’ Cardinal’s Hat fly to.”— Bamabee's Journal.
#742 AT YE SALUTATION IN LOMBARD Two men, bowing.
Rev. STREET . HIS HALF PENNY In the field, T. M. H.
After the great fire, eastward, but immediately adjoining to St. Mary Woolnoth church, Sir Robert Viner built a stately mansion. Here he was visited by King Charles the Second, being the royal banker, and consulted on pecuniary matters, but more particularly during his mayoralty in 1674-5. On one occasion the kings of England and London became gloriously mellow ; and Charles, when about to enter his coach on his return westward, was urgently entreated by Sir Robert to " stay and take another bottle." Seducing and seduced, to this the king jovially consented, and, thrusting his arm within the lord mayor's, the reeling potentates returned to the table, singing jollily
" For a man that is drunk is as great as a king."
That this line was derived from some bacchanalian ballad, and one the king, possibly, sang among his dissolute midnight companions, has been generally conceded, but it has hitherto eluded discovery; chance has, however, shown it to be a portion of the following* :
" Come, hang up your care, and cast away sorrow ;
Drink on ; he 's a sot that e'er thinks of tomorrow.
Good store of tierce claret supplies every thing,
For a man that is drunk is as great as a king.
Let no one with crosses or losses repine,
But take a full dose of the juice of the vine.
Diseases and troubles are ne'er to be found,
But in the damn'd place where the glass goes not round.
Come, hang up your care," etc. Westminster Drollery, 1672.
Sir Robert Viner's house was subsequently the Post Office, the site being now occupied by the Guardian Life Assurance office, and Adam Spielmann's office for the exchange of foreign money.
* The catch, "Come, lay by your cares," was written by Thomas Shadwell, and sung in the third act of his comedy of The Miser, played at Drury lane in 1671-2. Sir Richard Steele, Spectator, No. 462, refers the incident to Guildhall, during the mayoralty dinner of that year. The freaks of royalty were sufficiently absurd, but that this should have occurred at a public festival is past credence.
“ No. 65 [Lombard Street]. The next house westwards stands upon the site of the
Salutation Tavern, which was erected there soon after the Great Fire ....
In 1748, this house was destroyed by the Fire which ravaged this part of Lombard Street.”—F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., F.S.A., in the Journal of the Institute of Bankers , May, 1886, part v., vol. vii., p. 340.
#744 WILLIAM SMITH. 1666 Royal oak, with three crowns.
Rev. IN LUMBER STREETE HIS HALF PENY.
“Royal Oak. This was a tavern. Pepys, on April 10, 1663, wrote that he ‘ to
Royall Oake Taverne, in Lumbarde Streete, where Alexander Broome the poet was, a
merry, witty man, I believe, if he be not a little conceited, and here drank a
sort of French wine called Ho Bryant (Haut Brion ?) that hath a good and most
particular taste I ever met with.’”—F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., F.S.A., in Journal
of the Institute of Bankers , May, 1886, part v., vol. vii., p. 328.
“ At noon to the Royall Oak Taverne in Lumbard Street ; where Sir William Petty and the owners of the double-bottomed boat (the Experiment) did entertain my Lord Brouncker, Sir R. Murrey, myself and others, with marrow bones, and a chine of beef of the victuals they have made for this ship ; and excellent company and good discourse.”—Pepys’ Diary, February 18, 1664-5.
B1752. Obverse. Rich . Goodall . in . lumber = Three swans.
R. STREET . HIS . HALF . PENNY = R . A . G divided by flowers.
B1754. Obverse. ROBERT . JONES . AT . THE = A plough.
R. IN . LVMBER . STRETE = A plough. 1/4
“The Plough : Peter White, and Churchill, probably near Plough Court. Fie was there in 1680, but he cannot be traced further. In 1694 Mr. D’Oyley was there ; it was occupied by a goldsmith named Joseph Wilson from 1703—I 710 -”
—F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., F.S.A., in Journal of the Institute of Bankers , May, 1886, part v., vol. vii., p. 326.
B1758. Obverse. AT . YE . 6 . BELLS . IN . DOVE . COVRT = Six bells.
R. AT. YE . LOWER . END . LVMBARD . STREET = A dove with an olive-branch in its beak.
“ This Tavern, as well as Dove Court itself, has been swept away by the improved approaches to new London Bridge.”—Akerman’s London Tradesmen's Tokens , 1849.
#745 AT THE 3 BIBLES ON C. S. T[YNS], in the field.
Rev. LONDON BRIDGE In the field, three bibles.
Tokens issued by booksellers are of the utmost rarity. The Wise Merchant, or the Peerless Pearl, by Thomas Calvert, was printed for Charles Tyns, dwelling at the Three Bibles on London Bridge, 1660, 8vo. The initials on the obverse have doubtless reference to this publisher. The Three Bibles are a charge in the arms of the Stationers Company.
The same sign appears to be alluded to in a later notice. The sixth edition of Love's Mariner's Jewel, printed in 1724, has advertised at the end, " the right sort of the Balsam of Chili, to be had of Henry Tracy, at the Three Bibles on London Bridge, at Is. 6d. a bottle, where it hath been sold these forty years." The earlier editions of the same work had, possibly, the same announcement, to which is annexed the caution, " all persons are desired to beware of a pretended Balsam of Chili, which for about these seven years last past hath been sold and continues to be sold, by Mr. John Stuart, at the Old Three Bibles, as he calls his sign, although mine was the sign of the Three Bibles twenty years before his. This pretended balsam sold by Mr. Stuart resembles the true balsam in colour, and is put up in the same bottles ; but has been found to differ exceedingly from the true sort by several persons, who, through the carelessness of the buyers entrusted, have gone to the wrong place. Therefore all persons who send should give strict order to enquire for the name, of Tracy ; for, Mr. Stuart's being the very same sign, it is an easy matter to mistake. All other pretended Balsams of Chili, sold elsewhere, are shams and impositions, which may not only be ineffectual, but prove of worse consequence."
“ An Excellent Bolus for the cure of the Gout, found out by Joseph Garret of
Rigate in the County of Surrey, Practitioner in Physique, and approv’d of by
divers Persons of Quality, as a Medicine seldome or never failing to give ease
in the greatest extremities, is to be had at Mr. Pages at the Turks-head in
Cornhill near the Exchange , at the 3 Bibles upon London-Bridge, .... at the
Elephant and Castle without Temple-Barre . . . .’’—The Intelligencer, No. 89,
November 14, 1664, p. 731.
#746 EDWARD MUNS AT THE SUGER Sugar-loaf, in the field.
Rev. LOAF ON LONDON BRIDGE . 1668 HIS HALFE PENNY.
Edward Muns at the Sugarv Loaf on LOndon Bridge. 1668. His Half Penny. And Sugar-loaf, in the field.
In the London Gazette, No. 209, November 14-18, 1667, there is a notice to all desirous of buying or selling ground in the City of London, bidding them go to “ the dwelling house of Mr. James Peters Scrivener, at the signe of the Sugar-loaf near the Draw-bridge on London-bridge.”
B1759. Obverse. at . the . whit . lyon — A lion rampant.
R. NEIR . LONDON . BRIDGE = T . A . C. 1/4
B1762. Obverse. GEORGE . WALLKER . ON = A rose.
R. LONDON . BRIDGE . I 667 = HIS HALFE PENNY. G . A . W.
B1763. Obverse. Joh : Weld . at . ye . lyon = A lion rampant.
R. ON . LONDON . BRIDGE = I . W. 57. 1/4
#747 WILLIAM BURGES AT Butchers Company arms, in field.
Rev. LONDON STONE . 1667 HIS HALF PENY.
London Stone, an undoubted memorial of the Roman occupation of this country, and by some considered as a milliarium or central stone, from whence the distances from London were measured. In the Anglo-Saxon period, in the time of Athelstan, king of the West Saxons, it is mentioned as London Stone. Hollar's Map of London, engraved in 1667, shows its former position, abutting on the roadway on the south side of Cannon street, whence Sir Christopher Wren, in veneration of its antiquity, and to protect it from further injury, encased it in a position against the south wall of St. Swithin's church.
B1764. Obverse. IO . BENION . IN . WHIT . HORS . YRD = A horse.
R. LONDON . WALL . NEER . MORGAT = HIS HALFE PENNY.
“Strayed, or stolen from Oundle in Northamptonshire on the 12 th Instant a broad white grey Nag 14 hand high, Mare-faced , all his paces. He that shall give notice of him .... to Mr. John Benion, at the White-Horse London-Wall, shall have 40s. for his peyns.”—The Newes, No. 58, July 21, 1664, p. 468.
B1765. Obverse. Henry . Cranfie . at . ye = A female bust.
R. MAID . HEAD . LOND . WALL = H . E . C. 1/4
B1766. Obverse. Gannell . Gannell = A fox with a goose in its mouth.
R. AT . LONDON . WALL .1655 = 0. E. G. 1/4
The Fox and Goose was close to the Postern Gate.
B1767. Obverse. Charles . Griffin . at . londo n = A griffin rampant.
R. WALL . NEARE . BROAD . STREETE = HIS HALFE PENY 1668 .
B1768. Obverse. George . Ithell . at . London = The Blacksmiths’ Arms.
R. WALL . NEAR . BROADSTREET = HIS HALFE PENY.
B1769. Obverse. 3 . Tun . Alley . att = Bust of James I. with globe and sceptre.
R. LONDON . WALL = W . E . K. 1/4
B1770. Obverse. Tho . Lee . at . London . wall = A pair of cropper’s shears.
R. NEARE . THE . POSTERNE . GATE = HIS HALF PENY. T . M . L.
“Lost on the 17th Instant out of Bun hill-Fields a bright dun Gelding . . . . He that shall give notice of him to Thomas Lee Farrier at the Shiers near the Fox and Goose over against the Postern-Gate at London-Wall, shall be very well rewarded for his peyns.”—The Intelligencer, No. 35, May 2, 1664, p. 287.
B1771. Obverse. THE . BELL . AT . LONDON = A bell.
R. WALL . VINTENER . 1657 = T . A . S. 1/4
B1772. Obverse. HESTER . TROTTER . AT . Y E = A horse.
R. BY . LONDON . WALL . 67 = H . T. 1/4
B1773. Obverse. RIC . TVCKER . BY . LONDON . WALL = A CROWN.
R. NEAR . CARPENTERS . HALL = HIS HALFE PENY.
B1774. Obverse. EDWARD . WARING = HIS HALF PENY.
R. AT . LONDON . WALL = A whip.
Machin, in his Diary, December 6th, 1556, supplies the original name of " the
long acres," to this street, not Long Acre. " One of the three sanctr . ry men,
who had sought refuge in the convent of Westminster, and were whipped on that
day, was one of Master Comptroller's men, who had killed Richard Eggy Uston [Eccleston],
the comptroller's tayler, in the long acres, the backside of Charing - cross."
They were in the olden time called " the seven acres."
#749 WILL. RALPHE . GROCER A sugar-loaf, in the field.
Rev. IN LONG AKER . 1656 In the field, W. I. R. 1/4
B1799. Obverse. WILLIAM . RALPH . GROCER = A Sugar-loaf.
R. IN . LONGE . AKER . 1667 = HIS HALF PENY.
#750 RICHARD REDHILL A man dipping candles, in the field.
Rev. IN LONG ACRE In the field, R. M. R. 1/4
#751 EDWARD STANTON OYLEMAN, in the field.
Rev. IN LONG ACRE In the field, E. S.
#752 RALPH ELRINGTON In the field, a still. Rev. IN
LONG ACKER. 1657 The still repeated.
#753 ROBERT ABBITS IN A leg, or hosier's sign, in the field.
Rev. LONG ACRE . 1659 In the field, R. A. A. 1/4
#754 JOHN ASKUGH IN A man dipping candles, in the field.
Rev. LONG ACRE . 1659 In the field, I. M. A. 1/4
#755 JAMES BARBEY AT THE Seven stars, in the field.
Rev. IN LONG ACKER . 1663 In the field, I. A. B.
#756 MARTHA CHURCHER In the field, 1663.
Rev. IN LONG AKER M. M. C., in the field. 1/4
B1783. Obverse. MARTHA. CHURCHER = HER HALFE PENNY.
R. IN . LONG . AKER = M . M . C. 1667.
It is curious that these tokens, though issued by a woman, should have three initials upon them.
#757 WILL. JONES AT THE GOVLDEN A Cock, with spurs.
Rev. COCK IN LONGE ACRE . 1664 HIS HALFE PENNY.
#757* GABRIELL CRANNIDGE In the field, HIS HALF PENY.
Rev. IN LONG AKER . 1666 Man dipping candles.
B1777. Obverse. Robert . Avngeir = A Griffin.
R. AT . LONG . AKER . END = R . S . A. 1/4
B1778. Obverse. James . Aylard . at . ye . globe = A globe on a stand.
R . TAVERN . IN . LONGE . ACKER = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B1779. Obverse. James . Aylord . at . the = A globe on a stand.
R . IN . LONG . ACRE = I . E . A. 1/4
B1781. Obverse. JOHN . BARNES . AT . THE = A vine.
R. VINE . IN . LONG . AKER . 1664 = WINE COOPER HIS 1/2.
B1782. Obverse. MARGARET . BROOKES . IN = M . B. 1670.
R. LONG . ACRE = J.
1785. O. GABRIELL . CRANNIDGE = HIS HALF PENY.
R. in . longe . aker . 1 666 = A man dipping candles.
1786. O. AT . THE . SUGAR . LOAFE = A Sugar-loaf.
R. IN . LONG . ACRE . 1656 = G . D . D. 1/4
B1787. Obverse. WILL . EDMONDS . AT . YE . GLOBE = A globe.
R. TAVERN . IN . LONG E . AKER . 67 = HIS HALFE PENNY. W . E . M.
The initials on this token, it will be observed, are not in the usual order, the wife’s initial, M., coming last. The actual position on the token is w m e. Hence it is possible that W M stands for William.
B1789. Obverse. JOHN . FOY . AT . THE . BLACK = A raven.
R. RAVEN . IN . LONG . AKER = I . P . F. 1/4
B1790. Obverse. R . H . AND . MORGAN . HIND = A hind.
R. BREWERS . IN . LONG . AKER = HIS HALF PENY.
B1791. Obverse. John . Horne . in = A sheep standing on a bone (?).
R. IN . LONG . AKER = I . I . H. 1/4
B1792. Obverse. Hugh . Jackson . at . the = A lion rampant.
R. GOLDEN . LYON . IN . LONG . ACRE = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B1794. Obverse. David . Lumsden . in . longe = The Royal Arms.
R. acre . his . halfe . penny = Two flowers dividing D . D . L.
B1795. Obverse. BENJAMIN. MASON = HIS HALF PENY.
R. BACKSIDE . LONG . ACKER = B . F . M. 1666.
B1796. Obverse. WILLIAM . NALER . AT . THE = W . E . N.
R. VIRGINY . IN . LONG . AKER = 1654. 1/4
B1797. Obverse. ISACK . POSTE . Y E . WOSTED = I . E . P.
R. SHOP . IN . LONG . AKER = I . E . P. 1/4
B1798. Obverse. GEORGE . PRIST. 1 663 = A SEMSTRS SHOP.
R. IN . LONG . AKER = G . D . P.
B1802. Obverse. John . Sares . in = A harp and a harrow.
R. LONGE . AKER . 1664 = 1 . I . S.
B1803. Obverse. Robert . Skipwith . back = A bunch of grapes between R . M . S.
R. SIDE . OF . LONG . ACRE . 1666 = HIS HALFE PENNY.
B1805. Obverse. JOHN . WATSON = HIS HALF PENY.
R. IN . LONG . AKER . 1669 = 1 . M . W.
B1806. Obverse. William . Whitehall = A cheesemonger’s knife.
R. IN . LONG . ACAR . l66o = W . M . W. 1/4
#758 WILL. ANDREWS IN LONG A crooked billet, in the field.
Rev. ALLY. AT THE CROKED BILET Infield, W. M. A. 1/4
B1808. Obverse. Mary . Fulwood . long = A blazing star.
R. ALY . IN . MORE . FEILDS = M . F. 1/4
B1809. Obverse. John . Greenhill . in . long = Three tuns.
R. ALLEY . IN . MORE . FEILDES = HIS HALF PENY. 1671.
B1810. Obverse. Lawrence . Jefferes = The Bakers’ Arms.
R. IN . LONG . ALLY . BAKER = HIS HALF PENY.
B1811. Obverse. Tho . Leawood . baker . in = A baker’s peel and pair of scales.
R. LONG . ALLY . IN . MOREFEILDS = HIS HALF PENY. T . M . L.
B1812. Obverse. at . the . 3 . hors . showes = Three horseshoes.
R. IN . LONG . ALLEY = W . T . M. 1/4
Long-ditch was the line of road extending from Storey's gate to Broken cross, at
the foot of Tothill street.
#759 JAMES LAZAR AT THE Griffin, in the field.
Rev. GRIFFIN IN LONG DICH In the field, I. E. L. 1/4
B1814. Obverse. James . Labar . at . the = A griffin holding a flag.
R. GRIFIN . IN . LONG . DICH = I . E . L. 1/4
#760 JOHN THROWLEY. 1656, in three lines across the field.
Rev. IN LONGDITCH WESTMIN In the field, chequers. 1/4
B1813. Obverse. Joh . Deverell . in . long = The Royal Arms.
R. DITCH . WESTMINSTER = I . M . D. 1/4
Stow, in 1603, at the close of Queen Elizabeth's reign, mentions Long lane, "
truly called Long, that reacheth from Smithfield to Aldersgate street, is now
lately built on both the sides, with tenements for brokers, tipplers, and such
like."Long lane was long distinguished as the mart of old frippery and cast-off
clothing, the Rag-fair of a bygone day. Taylor the water poet, in his Encomium
of the Noble Captain O'Toole, notices the
" Long-lane Dogditch dainn'd soule-wanting Brokers."
In the rare tract entitled Bartholomew Faire, with the severall Enormities and Misdemeanours there seen and acted, 1641, 4to, it is said, " Long lane at this time lookes very faire, and puts out her best cloaths with the wrong side outward, so turned for their better turning off." And more recently, Lady Wishfort's malediction, in Congreve's Way of the World, is sufficiently indicative of the tatterdemalion appearance it presented in 1700, "I hope to see you hung with tatters, like a Long-lane penthouse, or a gibbet thief."
#761 AT THE ACORNE IN In field, an acorn.
Rev. LONG LANE. 1656 I. S. S., in the field. 1/4
#762 GOLDEN BALL IN LONG A pendant ball, in the field.
Rev. LANE . MEALE SHOPP In the field, as above. 1/4
The Golden Ball belonged to a previous occupant, a silkman. The notoriety of the shop possibly induced its retention by the meal-man.
#764 AT WHITINGTONS CAT A cat walking, in the field.
Rev. IN LONG LANE . 57 In the field, I. M. M. 1/4
The tradition of Whittington's cat has served to amuse and delight the childhood of many many thousands ; nor is it possible in more adult years to shake off the delusion cherished and imbibed in our youthful dreams. Still, it has no reality ; it is a pleasing fiction, so agreeable to our better feelings, so happy in its believed results, that regret is excited when it happens not to be true.
Sir Richard Whittington, thrice lord mayor of London, in the years 1397, 1406, and 1419, was born in 1360, the son of Sir William Whittington, knight, and dame Joan his wife. He was therefore not a poor boy ; and the story of his halting, a tired justifiable runaway, and resting on a stone at Holloway, while Bow bells merrily sounded to his hearing,
" Turn again Whittington, thrice lord mayor of London !"
has no other origin than a flourish of fancy created by some poetical brain. He was a mercer, amassed great wealth, and served the office of sheriff in 1393, but is not known to have been a merchant adventurer. He lent large sums to King Henry the Fifth, for advancing the war against France, was knighted by that monarch, and died in 1425. The only fact in the story is the circumstance that the maiden name of Sir Richard's wife was Alice Fitzwarren ; all else is falsified history. The historians of the fifteenth century are altogether silent as to the superlative value of puss.
The Whittington's Head, as a sign, has not occurred to the writer, probably on account of his having while mayor in 1419-20, entered on a sort of crusade against the ale-sellers, and fined them so heavily, that in the Brewers' records of the following year, they minute, " in consequence of the grievances and great charges imposed on the brewers by Richard Whytingdon, all the year of his mayoralty, they declined making feasts or breakfasts, or to provide for their yearly livery."
Early in the reign of King James the First, Reginald Elstracke engraved a portrait of Sir Richard Whittington, his right hand resting on a skull, according to the religious notions of the age ; in this state it is of great rarity and price. At the sale of the Delabere collection of portraits, March 29th, 1811, an impression in that state was purchased by the elder Manson, for ten guineas. Peter Stent, a printseller in Pye-corner, who died of the plague on Michaelmas-day, 1665, on obtaining the plate, altered it according to the received tradition, and transformed the skull into a cat. The impression now presented to the reader is from the ORIGINAL COPPER PLATE, and is proffered as some atonement on the part of the writer, for the graceless attempt to dissolve the baseless fabric of a vision, the legend of Whittington and his cat.
" Sir Richard Whittington's advancement ; being an historical account of his education, unexpected fortune, and charity," is parcel of the ballad lore of a bygone age*. The earliest notice of Whittington the writer has seen occurs in the first scene of the fourth act of Eastward Hoe, printed in 1605 ; where Touchstone assures Golding he hopes to see him reckoned one of the worthies of the city of London, " when the famous fable of Whittington and his puss shall be forgotten." That further mention was current among contemporary writers, in accordance with the tradition, cannot be doubted, as is evidenced by that of Henry Parrott, in his Springes for Woodcocks, 1613 :
" 'Tis said that Whittington was raised of nought,
And by a cat hath divers wonders wrought."
Ballads, edited by Thomas Evans, edit. 1777, duod., vol. i. p. 292.
Taylor the water poet, in his Motto, printed in 1621, 8vo, while noticing his avoidance of care, observes
" For long agoe I doe remember that
There was a proverb, ' care will kill a cat.'
And it is said, a cat 's a wond'rous beast,
And that she hath in her nine lives at least ;
And sure if any cat this care should shun
It was the famous cat of Whittington ;
For whom was giv'n a ship rich fraught with ware,
And for a lucky pusse like that, / care."
#765 MATHIAS SHELDRAKE In the field, a sugar-loaf.
Rev. IN LONG LANE A tobacco-roll, in the field.
#766 ROBART WILDBORE AT Ye A harp, in the field.
Rev. IN LONG LANE In the field, R. M. W. 1/4
#767 CHRISTOPHER MILLER Stag's head and antlers, in field.
Rev. YE HORNES . LONGE LANE In the field, C. E. M. 1/4
#768 RAINBIRD DUGDALE In the field, HIS HALFE PENY.
Rev. AT YE Wheatsheaf, in the field, IN LONGE LANE.
Dugdale was a mealman or corn-chandler ; another of the same family or name was located at that period in Fleet lane ; see No. 479.
#769 THOMAS MORTON IN In the field, a grasshopper.
Rev. LONG LANE. HIS HALF PENY T. M. M. 1666.
The Grasshopper is a frequent sign among grocers, who adopt it in a supposed compliment to Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange, the vane of that edifice being also formerly a grasshopper. Sir Thomas however was a mercer, not a grocer. The grasshopper was the original family crest of the Greshams, and appears on the seals of James Gresham, great-grandfather of Sir Thomas, affixed to letters addressed by him from London, to Sir John Paston, in 1449, and other years ; the motto, FOETVNE AMES. The sign of Sir Thomas Gresham's house in Lombard street, used by him as a banker, was a grasshopper. The site of the house is now occupied by that of Messrs Martin, Stone, and Company.
Some grocers have recently in encomiastic verse eulogised the excellence of their wares ; with them the grasshopper would be an appropriate sign ; the Chinese having a notion that the soul of a poet passes into a grasshopper, they giving as a reason, because that insect sings till it starves.
B1816. Obverse. John . BRADBURY = The sun and a crescent moon.
R. IN . LONGE . LANE = I . I . B. 1/4
B1817. Obverse. THO . BURR . AT . GREENE = A dragon.
R. IN . LONG . LANE = T . B. 1/4
B1818. Obverse. RAINBIRD . DUGDALE = HIS HALFE PENY.
R. in . longe . lane=A wheatsheaf and three birds.
B1819. Obverse. JOHN . HAMMOND . IN . RAINE= HIS HALFE PENY. 1660.
R. BOW . COART . IN . LONG . LANE = I . A . H.
B1820. Obverse. HENRY . HARWOOD . IN . LONG = A bull.
R. LANE . HIS . HALFE . PENNY = H . P . H. 1667.
1821. Obverse. Richard . Higgings = A lion rampant.
SR. IN . LONGE . LANE . 58 = R . I . H. 1/4
B1823. Obverse. MOSES . MAYHEW.=A Stag.
R. IN . LONG . LANE . 1667 = HIS HALFE PENNY. M . E . M.
B1827. Obverse. Roger . Seymor = A bell.
R. IN . LONG . LANE = R . E . S. 1/4
B1830. Obverse. THOMAS . YOUNG . AT . THE = A harp.
R. HARP . IN . LONG. LANE = HIS HALFE PENY. 1668.
#770 THOMAS BROWNE. OYLE: Weavers Company arms, in field.
Rev. SHOP. LOTHBURY T. M. B., in monogram.
#771 MICHAEL WOLRICH The Prince's plume or feathers.
Rev. IN LOATHBURY. 1656 In the field, M. W.
The Feathers tavern was situated immediately opposite the end of Tokenhouse yard. Subsequently it gave name to Prince's court, the site of which is now within the walls of the Bank of England.
#772 AT THE WEST CVNTRY COFFEE In the field, I. S.
Rev. HOVSE IN LOTHEBURY A hand pouring coffee.
The only trader's token in the far-famed Earl of Pembroke's cabinet. See Nicolo Francis Haym's Numismata Pembrochiana, part iv. pi. 21.
B1832. Obverse. Edward . Brisco . 1670 (across the field, in three lines).
R. in . Lothbury = Three greyhounds.
B1834. Obverse. Joh : Doegood . founders = A bottle with handle.
R. ALLEY . IN . LOTHBURY = I . M . D. 1/4
B1835. Obverse. at . the . Turkes . Head = Head of a Turk.
R. IN . LOATHBVRY . 1659 = R . A . R. 1/4
B1836. Obverse. John . Rose . in . token . hous = A sugar-loaf between I . E . R.
R. YARD . IN . LOTHBVRY = A CLOTH WORKER.
B1838. Obverse. AVERY . TERRILL . COOKE . AT / YE . A falcon ; below, 69.
R. GOLDEN . FAULCON . IN . LOYHBURY = HIS HALF PENY A . M . T.
B1839. Obverse. John . Varny . at . the = A bunch of grapes.
R. in . Lothburry . 1671 = i . M . v. ( Octagonal .) 1/4
B1841. Obverse. Kings . Head . post = Bust of James I. crowned, with globe and sceptre.
R. HOUSE . LOVE . LANE . 57 = W . I . L.
“ It is likewise notified that the Office for the Kentish daily Post is now kept at the Round Blouse in Love Lane near Billinsgate, for the conveniency of trading into that County. And all Letters into Kent delivered at the Kings general Post-Office shall be sent thither daily.”—Announcement of the Postmaster-General in the Mercurius Publicus, July, 18—July 25, 1661, p. 461 ; and in the Kingdom's Intelligencer, No. 29, July 15-22, 1661. Vide No. 1237.
B1842. Obverse. JOHN . MURDINE . TALLOW = I . M . M. 1666.
R. CHANLER . IN . LOVE . LANE = BY BILLINGSGATE.
#773 AT YE S. JOHNS HEAD Baptist's head, in a charger.
Rev. ON LUDGATE HILL .1649 In the field, M. M. N.
Among the steward's items of expenses incurred by and disbursed for Sir John Howard, are noticed, "February 12th, 1464-5. Item,. paid at the Sayn Johns hede, at Lodgate, for wyne, xcZ." Again, under February 6th, 1466-7 : " Item, my mastyr paid fore costes at the taverne at Lodgate, whane my lord of Oxenford soped there, blank." Later, Machin, in his Diary, July, 1559, mentions the suicide of " a haberdasher dwelling against the St. John's head, at Ludgate."
In all catholic countries the head of the Baptist has long been venerated as a precious relique ; and the saint's head has been amazingly multiplied, almost as numerously as the sign-boards, for the gratification of believers in such absurdities. The abbot Villeloin, in his memoirs, remarks that the head of St. John the Baptist was saluted by him at Amiens ; he adds, that it was the fifth or sixth he had had the honour to kiss.
#774 RICHARD HAWKINS AT THE Three Tuns; Vintners' arms.
Rev. TAVERNE ON LUDGATE HILL R. H. in monogram.
Moses Pitt, in his touching little book, The Cry of the Oppressed, l2mo., 1691,
speaks of an interview between himself and some of his cruel oppressors at this
#775 HENRY PAINE LUDGATE Initials, in the field, H. A. P.
Rev. AT THE DOGG TAVERN A dog, collar and chain.
B1851. Obverse. AT . THE . DOGG . TAVERN = A dog.
R. WITHIN . LVD . GATE = G . G . P.
The site of the Dog tavern, from a parcel of deeds in the writer's possession, is shown to have been within Ludgate, now called Ludgate street, and " in or near Ave Maria lane." The property, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, appears to have belonged to the Hulson family, severally described as goldsmiths and scriveners. In February, 1608, Dionysia Partridge, widow, some time wife of John Hulson deceased, held it by a life interest, the reversion after her death having been purchased by John Fabian of Westminster, gent. ; he, on the 16th of that month, sold his reversionary right for 1602., to Richard Graves, haberdasher. The messuage is described as being some time known by the name or sign of the Castle, and some time by the sign of the Bell, then occupied by Bell, a tailor ; and some time before that, was a tavern, known by the sign of the Queen's Arms, in the tenure of one Harris, or Harrison, vintner ; and some time in the several tenures of Matthew Pehell, alias Peele, barber-surgeon, Richard Oliffe, clothworker, and John Crooke, gent., or their assignees. Richard Graves was deceased, 1632, 8th of Charles I., as by an inquisition in that year it was found that he had held the said messuage in free burgage of the city of London ; and it became the property of his son and heir Richard Graves, of Lincoln's Inn, esq., and of Helen his wife, who subsequently leased the same to Henry Hothersall, vintner, for twenty-one years, at 402. per annum, by indenture dated July 7th, 1649 ; that term commencing from the feast of the nativity of St. John the Baptist last past.
By a deed of sale dated October 10th, 1654, Richard Graves* and Helen his wife sold the said messuage or tenement, then described as " now or late in the tenure or occupation of Henry Hothersall, vintner, and now used, with other rooms thereto adjoyning, parcel of the possessions and holden by lease of the company of Stationers, for a tavern, commonly called or known by the name or sign of the Talbot, or the Dog tavern ;" to Martin Dallison, of Haringay, alias Hornsey, gentleman, subject to the aforesaid lease, but relinquishing all claim to accruing rent, for 6002. Martin Dallison of Hammersmith, gent., his son and heir, held it by descent in September, 1666, when in the great conflagration the Dog tavern was wholly destroyed. In March, 1671, Dallison disposed of the site (the consideration does not appear) to William Williams, of St. Clement Danes, glazier, by whom the Dog tavern was rebuilt. The land measurement now first appears, and is thus estimated ; from north to south twenty -nine feet, and from west to east twenty-eight feet four inches ; having also another piece of ground on the south annexed, heretofore used as a court-yard, extending from north to south twelve feet, and from west to east seventeen feet four inches. Subsequent deeds show the heirs of Williams to have bee.n possessors for very short periods ; in fact, wealth acquired towards the evening of life affords but too frequently a brief space of enjoyment.
Of this Richard Graves, bencher and reader of Lincoln's Inn, clerk of the peace, and receiver-general for the county of Middlesex, there is a fine portrait, engraved by Vertue. He was twice married, and by his two wives had issue nineteen children, six sons and thirteen daughters. He died in 1669, aged 59. Helen, his wife, who attests this deed, and was doubtless a person of some wealth and consideration, could not write, and has only affixed an H as her mark. That her namesake Ellen or Eleanor Gwynne could not write, and in similar circumstances could only affix her initials, will not cause much surprise ; only, here Mrs. Graves's affixture is evidently formed by using a pen, while Nelly's, in the deeds the writer has seen in Gray's Inn, relative to her house in Pall Mall, has all the roughness of having been traced by a wooden skewer.
This tavern was burnt down in the Great Fire, and was rebuilt in 1671 by one William Williams, of St. Clement Danes, glazier.—[B.]
B1843. Obverse. JOHN . BENETT . IN . LUD = I . B.
R. GATE . STREET . GROCER = HIS HALFE PENY.
B1844. Obverse. the. Mermaide . tavern = A mermaid.
R. ON . LUDGATE . HILL . 1652 = S . H . G.
B1847. Obverse. THO . HEATH . AT . THE . GLOBE . W TH = A globe On a stand.
R. IN . LVDGATE . HIS . HALFE . PENY = T . E . H.
One of the rare bookseller’s tokens.— Vide No. 1237, and Appendix.
“ Stenography , or the Art of Short-Writing made both plain, and easy with Examples and Observations. Sold and Composed by 7 ho. Heath Stationer within Ludgate, where you may also have Scriveners Labels.”—The Newes , No. 49, June 20, 1664, p. 395.
B1848. Obverse. THOMAS . HOLMDEN = A stag.
R. WITHIN . LUDGATE = T . A . H.
B1849. Obverse. Andrew . Hunter . 1665 = A pelican (?).
R. IN . LUDATE . STREETE = HIS HALF PENY.
B1853. Obverse. John . Pinson . at . the . Bell — Head of a Turk.
R. Savig . at . Ludgate . hill = Chequers.
“A Rhynoceros, a very strange beast lately brought over from the East Indies, being the first that was ever in England, is daily to be seen at the ‘ Bell-Savage’ inn from 9 in the morning till 8 at night .”—London Gazette , October 14, 1684.
The following different explanations have been given of the sign of the Bell Savage :
1. Stow says it received its name from one Isabella Savage, who had given the house to the Company of Cutlers.
2. The Antiquarian Repertory , following Stow, asserts that the inn was once the property of the Lady Arabella Savage, familiarly called “Bell Savage;” which name was represented in a rebus by a wild man and a bell, and so it was always drawn on the panels of the coaches that used to run to and from it, until the railways changed our style of travelling.
3. The Spectator , No. 82, says that the sign was derived from “ a very beautiful woman who was found in a Wilderness, and is called in the French, la belle Sauvage , and is everywhere translated by our countrymen the Bell-Savage.”
4. By a deed, enrolled on the Close Roll of 1483, John Frensh confirmed to his mother: “Totum tensive hospicium cum suis p’ten’ vocat’ Savagesynne, alias vocat’ le Belle on the Hope.” The association of Savage’s Inn with the sign of the Bell seems to account fully and satisfactorily for this curious sign.—Adapted from Burn’s London 7 radesmen s Tokens , Cunningham’s 7 Jand-Book of London , and Larwood and Hotten’s History of Sign-Boards. See these, and Akerman’s London Tradesmen’s Tokens , for fuller information.
B1854. Obverse. Thos . Stroud . at = A Turk’s head. 1 D .
R. Ludgat . coffee . hovse = A view of Ludgate. I
Thomas Stroud at Ludgate Coffee House - One penny with A Turk’s head and A view of Ludgate
B1857. Obverse. IE AMS . BEDFORD . IN . LUTENER = I , P . B.
R. LANE . HIS . HALFE . PENNY = 1669. CHANDLER.
B1858. Obverse. THO . JACKSON . AT . YE = T . I . I.
R. in . Luteners . lane = A crescent moon.
#737 Obverse. AT THE WHITE HORSE Horse caprioling, in the field.
Rev. NEXT TO LIONS INN In the field, R. S. 1/4
The entrance into Lyons inn was formerly in Holywell street, but the White Horse was possibly situated in Wyche street.
As ever I am appreciative of the archive.org site and google books for
showing old and non-copyright scripts which can be used for research (copied).