LONDON TRADERS, TAVERN, AND COFFEE-HOUSE TOKENS, CURRENT 1649-1672. :
Index of Tradesmens tokens.
The # prefix is the numbering of the Beaufoy collection, and B is the prefix of additional tokens listed in the Boynes collection.
B1056 Obverse. Joh . Abbott . in . fleete = A string of candles. 1/4
R. LANE . AT . Ye . BRIDGE = I . P . A. }
B1058. A variety is dated 1664. 1/2
B1059 Obverse. Samuell . Griffeth = King’s head crowned, full-face.
R. IN . FLEET . LANE = S . G. 1/2
B1060 Obverse. John . Howkins = Detrited.
R. IN . FLEET . LANE = I . S . H.
B1062 Obverse. HENRY . WATERFALL = HIS HALFE PENNY.
R. IN . FLEET . LANE = H . E . W.
#477 AT THE SHIP IN A ship, in the field.
Rev. FLEETE LANE . 1649 In the field, S. A. O.
#478 HENRY YEO. HIS HALF PENNY Three hanks of silk.
Rev. AT THE PLOUGH IN FLEET LANE A plough.
Burn describes the device on the obverse as “ Three hanks of silk,” and says that they are apparently a charge on the Silk Throwers’ Arms.
#479 WIL : DUGDALE . MEALE-MAN HIS HALFE PENY, in field.
Rev. IN FLEET LANE NEAR Y E BRIDGE W. D. 1663.
The bridge over Fleet ditch, that continued the thoroughfare from Fleet lane, through Harpur (now Harp) alley, into Shoe lane. Mynshul, in Essayes and Characters of a Prison, 1618, complains that "the turnkeys, in spite, draw bloud of the prisoner, by poisoning the master's good intention, so that hee, crossing over the water, or walking scarce to the crosse in Cheape, from the Compter, or, from the Fleete, so fair as to one of the cookes shops in the lane, there drownes the vow of any promise."
Ben Jonson, in The Famous Voyage, describes Fleet ditch,
" The ever -boiling flood, whose banks upon,
Your Fleet-lane furies, and hot cooks* do dwell,"
as the vortex of disgusting nuisances. After the fire, the city authorities in-effectually attempted, at great cost, its renovation. Swift, later, details its compounds :
" Sweepings from butchers' stalls, dung, guts, and blood,
Drown'd puppies, stinking sprats, all drench'd in mud,
Dead cats, and turnip-tops, come tumbling down the flood."
And Gay, in the second book of his Trivia, as
"The black canal of mud,
Where common sewers sullen murmurs keep,
Whose torrents rush from Holborn's fatal steep."
On the projected clearance of Woolchurch or Stocks market, from the site of the present Mansion-house, the Fleet ditch was arched over, "its nauseous stench to offend no more ;" the Fleet-lane bridge vanished in these improvements, and Stocks market, newly named Fleet market, commenced at Michaelmas, 1737, in the centre of the whole range of Farringdon street ; where it continued till Michaelmas, 1829.
#481 AT THE DOLPHIN A dolphin, in the field.
Rev. WITHIN TEMPLE BARE In the field, W. M. W.
The Dolphin at an earlier date would seem to have been a house of no great reputation. At the wardmote courts of 1640 and 1641, Timothy Howe, at the Dolphin near Temple bar, was presented for using unlawful measures. Howe appears to have been several times under the ban of the inquest. He and others then residing in Earn alley, were, in December, 1618, presented for keeping their tobacco shops open all night, and having fires therein to which there were no chimneys ; for uttering hot waters (spirituous liquors), and selling ale without licence ; to the great disquietness, terror, and annoyance of that neighbourhood. Howe was again, with others, presented in December, 1630, for annoying the judges at Serjeants' inn, Chancery lane, by the smell and stench of their tobacco.
* The banking-house of Messrs Child and Co. was, in King James the First's
reign, a public ordinary ; the sign being the Marygold,
" The marigold that goes to bed with the sun,
And with him rises weeping." Winter's Tale, act iv. sc. 3.
As an ordinary it appears to have borne a riotous character, and at the wardmote held on St. Thomas's day, December 21st, 1619, Richard Crompton, keeping an ordinary at the Marygold in Fleet street, was presented " for disturbing the quiet of John Clarke, being next neighbours, late in the nights, from time to time, by ill disorder." Messrs Child are also in possession of the original sign a full blown marygold, exposed to a meridian sun ; and round it, the motto " AINSI MON AME."
Carved in oak, but painted and gilded in part, it is over the door in the front office, and may be readily scanned by any person whose business with the house may draw him thither.
Among the, memorable banking accounts at Messrs Child's, in the olden time, may be particularized that of Madame Eleandr Gwynne. The world have yet much to learn respecting this extraordinary individual, who certainly on her outset in life sold oranges from a basket borne on the arm, in the pit of Drury lane theatre. Charles the Second died February 6th, 1685 ; and he is said, almost in extremis, if not really his last words, to have enjoined on his successor, " let not poor Nelly starve." If such was really his injunction, the commiseration would seem to have been ill placed ; Nelly, who refused all titles of honour for herself, was anything but poor; in the closing of her banking account in January, 1688, the executors of her will, Lawrence Hyde, earl of Rochester ; Henry Sidney, afterwards earl of Eomney ; Sir Eobert Sawyer ; and Thomas Herbert, earl of Pembroke, collector of the justly distinguished cabinet of coins recently dispersed, severally attest its settlement by their signatures ; and as one of the items appear 14,443 ounces of plate.
#482 THE KINGS HEAD TAVERN King Henry the Eighth.
Rev. AT CHANCERY LANE END In field, T. A. K.
#483 WILLIAM HART . CHANCEREY In field, HIS HALFE PENY.
Rev. LANE END IN FLEET STREET King Henry the Eighth, full faced, W. M. K.
By an error of the die-sinker, the letter K is punched on the reverse, instead of H, for the name of Hart, the issuer.
The King's Head tavern stood at the west corner of Chancery lane, as tradition states, on or near the site of a mansion that had been the residence of Sir John Oldcastle, summoned to parliament as Baron Cobham, and who died in 1417. The King's Head tavern is asserted, from some old papers, to have been erected in the reign of King Edward the Sixth ; the sign was, however, that of the burly reformer his father. Queen Elizabeth, in her fourth year, was entertained by the students of the Temple, and on that or an ensuing occasion of a visit to the city authorities, a species of masque was presented to Her Majesty on her entering the city ; and, from some cords across the street, adjusted from the King's Head tavern to the opposite side, several cherubs descended, and proifered for her acceptance a crown of gold and laurels, with several complimentary loyal verses. Those presented by a fourth cherub were the following quatrain :
" Virtue shall witness of her worthiness,
And fame shall registrare her princelie deeds ;
The worlde shall still praie for her happyness,
From whom our peace and quietude proceeds*.
Here was no vague prophecy ; for, as Henry Kirke White most eloquently expresses it, ...
' ' Virtue blooms,
Even in the wreck of life, and mounts the skies ;"
thus it is, the princely glories of " good Queen Bess's" days continue as fresh in the pages of history as ever, and the brightness of their halo is of unsurpassed effulgence ; and yet these lines seem but written as now, and in praise of our own monarch.
Like many of the large houses which were taverns at this period, the tavern or wine-rooms appear to have been on the first-floor. Richard Marriott, for whom, while residing in St. Dunstan's churchyard, Fleet street, in 1653, the rare first edition of Isaac Walton's Compleat Angler was printed by Thomas Maxey, announced by advertisements, in 1665, that his publications were ' ' to bee sold at his shopp in Fleet street, under the King's Head taverne." How long it continued under that denomination is doubtful ; the house was demolished in May, 1799, to widen the entrance into Chancery lane.
* The quatrain here quoted are lines in George Peele's pageant, represented on
the inauguration-day of Sir Wolstan Dixie, Oct. 29th, 1585, of which no other
copy is known than that in the Corporation Library, Guildhall.
There are several prints of the old house at the west corner of Chancery lane ; but none approach in fidelity that from a drawing by William Capon. That by William Alexander, in Bagster's edition of Walton, 1815, 8vo, is interesting, as showing the old wine-room on the first floor to have been lastly a reading-room ; an inscribed board to that effect being placed at the window.
484 AT THE KINGS HEAD Henry the Eighth, full faced.
Rev. IN FLEET STREETE In the field, L. W : H. M.
485 JAMES FARR . 1666 An arched rainbow based on clouds.
Rev. IN FLEET STREET HIS HALF PENY.
The Rainbow appears to have been the second coffee-house opened in the metropolis. Aubrey, having noticed Bowman's coffee-house in St. Michael's alley, Cornhill, as the first established, in 1652*, adds " 'twas about four years before any other was set up, and that was by Mr. Farr." Aubrey wrote this in 1680, and Mr. Farr had then become a person of distinction.
Farr's success as a coffee -man appears to have annoyed his neighbours ; and at the wardmote held in St. Sepulchre's church, on Monday, December 21st, 1657, among the presentments of nuisances was the following : " We present James Farr, barber, for making and selling of a drinke called Coffee, whereby in making the same he annoyeth his neighbours by evill smells ; and for keeping of fire for the most part night and day, whereby his chimney and chamber hath been set on fire, to the great danger and affrightment of his neighbours." To this presentment were annexed the names of five complainants, one of them, Daniell Pakeman, law bookseller*, "at the Rainebow, in Fleet street." As a bookseller, Pakeman, his fears increased by Fair's continuing his fires day and night, and having already set his chimney and chamber on fire, was apprehensive the Rainbow might become too hot to hold him. The presentment, the avowed object of which was to oust the salamandrine coffee -vending barber, appears, however, to have failed in effect ; Farr possibly promised reform, or amended the alleged annoyance ; certain it is, Farr became eminently successful-)*, and is returned at the wardmotes in 1663 and 1668, among persons of eminence and repute, to constitute the grand jury for those years. Farr's token was doubtless occasioned by the disastrous great fire of September, 1666, to indicate that with him all was yet safe, and the Rainbow still radiant. His coffee-room was possibly that abutting on the Inner Temple passage.
* Coffee appears to have been known some years earlier at Oxford. Anthony Wood's notes record that while Nathaniel Conopius, a Cretan, continued in Baliol college, he made the drink called coffee for his own use, and usually drank it every morning. Conopius left the university in 1648 ; but, as the ancients of that house informed Wood, his was the first coffee that was drunk in Oxford. In 1650, Jacob, a jew, opened a coffee-house at the Angel, in the parish of St. Peter in the East, in Oxford, and there it was drunk by some who delighted in novelties. In 1654, Cinques Jobson, a jew and Jacobite, born near Mount Lebanon, sold coffee in Oxford ; and in 1655, Arthur Tillyard, an apothecary, in his house against All Souls college, sold coffee publicly: "this coffey house/' old Anthony adds, ' ' continued till His Majesty's return, and after ; and then they became more frequent, and had an excise set upon coffey."
Howell, while noticing Sir Henry Pope Blount's Organon Salutis, 1659, observes " this coffe-drink hath caused a great sobriety among all nations; formerly apprentices and clerks used to take their morning draughts in ale, beer, or wine, that often made them unfit for business : now they play the good-fellows in this wakefull and civil drink."
Coffee-houses, by the statute of 1663, 15 Chas. II., cap. 11 and 15, were diected to be licensed at the general quarter sessions of the peace for the county within which they were situated. In 1675, they were, by proclamation, ordered to be closed, as seminaries of sedition ; this egregrious act of folly, too frequent in that reign, was however amended in a few days by another, that annulled or suspended the former.
The Rainbow, so far as is known to the writer, does not occur on any other tradesman's token.
Hatton notices the Phoenix insurance office, established about the year 1682, as (1708) at the Rainbow coffee-house in Fleet street. The first promoter appears to have been Dr. Nicholas Barbone ; if he was related to Praise God Barebone, long a distinguished parishioner of St. Dunstan's, its establishment and retention at the Rainbow is immediately explained.
The Rainbow is even now a house of considerable business. The entrance is the second door westward of the Inner Temple gate in Fleet street. There are two or more small engraved views of the entrance, in the respective editions of Hughson and Malcolm, in 1807 and 1808.
* The house appears to have long borne " the signe of the Rainbowe." Ephraim Dawson, a bookseller, in 1636, was a publisher here, possibly in the front shop. Pakeman's name is found on title pages, in 1650, if not earlier ; and Samuel Speed was also a publisher " at the Rainbowe, near the Inner Temple gate, in Fleet street," in 1663. Richard Smith's Obituary notices, " September 3d, 1664, Daniel Pakeman, bookseller, in Fleet street, buried."
Aubrey, relating some anecdotes of Sir Henry Pope Blount, a distinguished literary character of the seventeenth century, adds " when coffee first came in, Sir Henry Blount was a great upholder of it, and hath ever since been a constant frequenter of coffee-houses, especially Mr. Farre's at the Rainbowe by Inner Temple gate ; and lately, John's coffee-house in Fuller's (Fulwood's) rents, in Holborn." These notes were written in 1680.
Sir Henry appears to have been a practical joker, an adroit fabricator of white lies, " one who," as Aubrey insinuates, "tells falsities not to doe anybody an injury, but to impose on their understanding." The knight alleged " at Mr. Farre's, that at an inne (naming the signe) in St. Alban's, the innkeeper had made a hogs-trough of a free-stone coffin, but the pigges after that grew leane, dancing and skipping, and would run up on the tops of the houses, like goates. Two young gentlemen, hearing Sir Henry tell this sham so gravely, rode the next day to St. Alban's to inquire. Coming there, nobody had heard of any such thing ; 'twas altogether false. The next night, so soon as they alighted, they came to the Rainbow and found Sir Henry, and, looking learingly on him, told him they wondered he was not ashamed to tell such stories. ' Why, gentlemen ! have you been there to inquire?' 'Yea,' said they. ' Why truly, gentlemen,' rejoined Sir Henry, ' I heard you tell such strange things I knew to be false, that I would not have gone over the threshold of the door to have found you in a lye ;' at which all the company laughed at the two young gentlemen."
Aubrey's narration of the St. Alban's hoax is thus differently related, in a rare volume of new jests, entitled The Complaisant Companion, 1674, 8vo, p. 54: " Two Jesuits seated in a coffee-house told a great many foreign stories, which [Sir Henry Pope Blount] a gentleman and a great traveller sitting by knew to be notorious lyes, yet contradicted them not, but told one of his own making, which was, that now is to be seen at St. Alban's a stone trough, which that saint kept a long time for water for his ordinary use ; and that ever since if swine should eat anything out of it they would die instantly. The Jesuits hearing this, resolved the next day to ride and see this holy relic. Coming to St. Alban's, they found no such matter ; and, returning home, tax'd the gentleman with telling such an untruth, saying, they had taken the pains to ride and see it, but found no such thing. ' Gentlemen/ said he, ' I thought you had been more civill; you told me the other night a hundred palpable lyes, and I went not about to disprove you ; I told you but one, and you, by your own confession, have ridden twenty miles to do it.' "
B1075. Obverse. FITZIEFERY . MILINER = N . A . F.
R. IN . FLEET . STREET = 1656.
#490 FITZ . JEFERY . MILINER N. A. F., in field.
Rev. IN FLEET STREET In the field, 1656.
Master Nicholas subsequently pursued his trade as a milliner at the sign of the Sunflower, in the Strand, whence he also issued a token, q.v. (No. 2972).—[B.]
The millinery business formerly, as evinced by the tokens, was conducted by men, who imported (as was presumed, from Milan,) fashions and elegancies for females. Hotspur (1st pt. Hen. IV., act iii. sc. 1.) contemptuously describes the king's messenger as " perfumed like a milliner."
" No milliner can so fit his customer."
#486 JOHN SECOL AT S. DVNSTANS In the field, I. P. S.
Rev. CHVRCH . FLEET . STREETE The same initials.
John Seacole's name is inscribed in the list of licensed victuallers, in the wardmote returns of 1649 and 1650. He was possibly dead in 1651, as his name appears not in that year. " The widow Seacole" is mentioned in that of December 1652, but not afterwards.
#487 ROB : MARKHAM AT THE Seven stars, in field, AGAINST.
Rev. ST. DVNSTONS CHVRCH . FLET STRET R. E. M. 1D
Very different in type to the penny issued by Robert Markham, in 1672, engraved in Snelling's View of the Copper Coinage, 1766, pi. v. fig. 7.
#488 THE HERCULES PILLERS Hercules grasping two pillars.
Rev. IN FLEET STREETE I. M. S., in the field.
Ed Oldham at Ye Hercules Pillers in Fleet Street, his halfpenny
The date of this piece is early ; as subsequently Edward Old ham issued an undated token " at ye Hercules pillers, in Fleet street." Oldham is named in the wardmote returns of licensed victuallers from 1657 to 1659 ; and among the free cooks from 1660 to 1680. The Hercules Pillars tavern was in repute among the bon-vivants of this period. Pepys frequently mentions it in his Diary, as a house to which he and his friends resorted. It stood on the site of the house now 27 in Fleet street. Hercules Pillars alley is still, de facto, opposite to Clifford's-inn passage, but without name. With the extinction of the tavern, the title of the neighbouring inlet of tenements seems also to have been forgotten
Robert Cole at the In Hercules Pillers in Fleet street, 1666, his halfpenny
B1072. Obverse. Robert. Cole . at. the = A man firing a cannon. His 1/2
R. In . Hercules . Pillars . in . Fleet. Street .1666. 1/2
#489 THOMAS TISBURY OLE In the field, T. T. in monogram.
Rev. MAN IN FLET STREETE 1653, in the field.
B1100. Obverse. THOMAS . Tisbery . Oyl = A lion passant.
R. MAN . IN . fleet . street = A monogram. ^
Thomas Tisberry, oilman, was presented at the wardmote court, on St. Thomas's day, December 21st, 1664, "for selling his goods by light weight;" certain weights being particularized as not according to the standard of weights settled by the lord mayor.
#491 AT THE CASTLE TAVERN A castle, in the field.
Rev. AT FLEET CONDUIT In the field, D. S. G.
" The Newe Conduit in Fleet street," according to the Chronicle of London, compiled in the reign of King Henry the Sixth, was begun in 1439, but not completed till 1471, in the mayoralty of Sir William Edwards. It stood in the main street, a little westward of Shoe lane end ; and by the fire in September, 1666, was wholly destroyed.
The Castle tavern was one of high repute. The Clockmakers Company, from their establishment in 1631, having no hall, held their meetings at some tavern in the city. Their last meeting before the fire was held August 20th, at the Castle tavern, in Fleet street, and the first meeting after, on October 8th, 1666, at the Crown tavern in Smithfield*.
After the fire, the Castle tavern was rebuilt ; and in October, 1735, the obituary of that month records the death of Sir John Tash, knight, alderman of Walbrook ward, who formerly kept the Castle tavern in Fleet street, and was one of the most considerable wine merchants in London ; he was then in the sixty first year of his age, and commonly reported to be worth two hundred thousand pounds.
#492 LEWIS WILLSON AT Ye The sun in rays, in the field.
Rev. TAVERNE IN FLEET STREET HIS HALFE PENY.
The name of Lewis Wilson is among the licensed vintners in the wardmote returns for 1661 to 1665 inclusive. As it is not in the lists of 1666, was the Sun tavern within range of the great fire that year, and not the late tavern of that sign by Shire lane at Temple bar ?
This tavern was used as head-quarters by Freemasons in Queen Anne’s reign.
#493 WILLIAM HEALEY AT THE Boar's head, in the field.
Rev. IN FLEET STREET . 1668 HIS HALFE PENNY. W. M. H.
William Hayley was no doubt the same person who appears in the wardmote returns of licensed victuallers for the years 1664 and 1665. The Boar's Head, situated between Water lane (now Water street) and the Bolt-in-Tun inn, was destroyed in the great fire of the following year. On its being rebuilded, Hayley resumed business, issued his token, and his name again appears in the wardmote returns from 1669 to 1680. He served the offices of constable and scavenger in 1674. The Boar's Head is still there.
Westward of the Boar's Head is the Bolt-in-Tun inn, the rebus of the family name of Bolton ; and the device being an arrow or bolt piercing the bung of a tun. It is an inn of earlier date than generally supposed : the ' '' Hospidwm vocatum l& Boltenton" is mentioned as a boundary, in a license of alienation to the Friars Carmelites of London, of certain premises in the parish of St. Dunstan, Fleet street, enrolled on the Patent Roll, 1443, 21 Hen. VI., p. 2, m. 24.
#494 WILLIAM HALSTED AT THE Grocers Company arms.
Rev. IN FLEET STREET . HIS 1/2 PENNY Monogram.
#B1073. Obverse. Tho . Cordin . at . the . white = The Grocers’ Arms.
R. HART . IN . FLEET . STREET = HIS HALF PENY. 1/2
“Mr. Barnebied Antipestilential Powder which he received from the Author of it, Dr. Whitaker, to be burnt into a Fume, being already approved upon tryal by several attestations to be of singular effect; is to be sold by . . . Mr. Cordwin , next door to Hinde-Court, Fleet-street.” — The Intelligencer , No. 61, August 7, 1665, p. 686.
#495 10. HARWARD AT 3 NUNS Three nuns, in the field.
Rev. IN FLEET STREETE In the field, I. H.
B1064. Obverse. John . Ashton . 1664 = Three kings crowned.
R. IN . FLEET . STREETE = I . L . A.
“ A Lordship with very fair Buildings, and 200 acres of Land, Medow, Pasture, and Wood-grounds within it self, besides other Lands and Tenements, all at the rent of 230/. per annum, with a Court Leet and Court Baron, Fines at will of Lord ; 30 miles from London , a good road, and an excellent good aire, which is now to be sold. You may hear further at the signe of the three Kings, in Fleetstreet , London." — Mercurius Publicus , No. 26, June 26 to July 3, 1662, p. 425.
B1065. Obverse. at . Ye . Three . Hats = Three hats.
R. AT . FLEET . CONDVIT = E . B.
B1066. Obverse. A bear with chain passant, F . E . B.
R. TAVERNE . IN . FLEET . STREET = 1665.
B1067. Obverse. THO . BACKHOVSE = A lion.
R. IN . FLEET . STREET = T . B. 1/4
B1068. Obverse. JOHN . BRYAN . IN . FLEET = A bull’s head.
R. STREET . HIS . HALFE . PENNY = I . I . B. 1667. 1/2
B1069. Obverse. John . Bryan . at . the = A bull’s head.
R. IN . FLEET . STREET . 1656 = 1 . M . B. 1/4
B1070. Obverse. AT . THE . SHVGE . LOFE . IN = A Sugar-loaf.
R. RAM . ALLEY . IN . FLET . STRET = M . A . C.
B1071. Obverse. Will . Cartwright = A dragon.
R. IN . FLEETE . STREETE = W . E . C.
Brush Collins, in March, 1775, delivered for several evenings in the great room
a satirical, inimical, and analytical lecture on the elements of modern oratory.
In the following year, a Pandemonium club was held here ; and, according to a
notice in the writer's possession, the first meeting was to be on Monday, the
4th of November, 1776. These devils were lawyers, who were about commencing
term, to the annoyance of many a hitherto happy bon-vivant.
The Devil tavern is now listed under Temple Bar
#496 WILL. WARDE AT THE UNICORNE In the field, 1D
Rev. IN NEW FLEETE STREETE Unicorn, in the field.
Large brass. " New Fleet street," apparently the new buildings eastward of Fetter lane, after theravages of the fire in September, 1666. Warde issued before the fire, a half-penny token; he was resident in 1666, in Green's rents, Fleet bridge.
The frequency of the unicorn as a sign has induced some persons to conjecture that it had been assumed on the accession of King James the Sixth of Scotland, and that the Tudor dragon had given place to the Scottish unicorn ; that however is not the fact ; on the tokens the animal is represented gradiens, and never heraldically with collar or chain.
B1105. Obverse. THOMAS . GREENE . AT . THE = BARLY BROTH. 1664.
R. BARLY . BROTH . FLEETE . YARD = T . M . G.
As ever I am appreciative of the archive.org site and google books for
showing old and non-copyright scripts which can be used for research (copied).